The Holy See
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2002 11 11
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Chapter 2


1 We ask you, brothers, with regard to the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ and our assembling with him,


not to be shaken out of your minds suddenly, or to be alarmed either by a "spirit," 2 or by an oral statement, or by a letter allegedly from us to the effect that the day of the Lord is at hand.


Let no one deceive you in any way. For unless the apostasy comes first and the lawless one is revealed, 3 the one doomed to perdition,


who opposes and exalts himself above every so-called god and object of worship, so as to seat himself in the temple of God, 4 claiming that he is a god


do you not recall that while I was still with you I told you these things?


And now you know what is restraining, 5 that he may be revealed in his time.


6 For the mystery of lawlessness is already at work. But the one who restrains is to do so only for the present, until he is removed from the scene.


And then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord (Jesus) will kill with the breath of his mouth and render powerless by the manifestation of his coming,


the one whose coming springs from the power of Satan in every mighty deed and in signs and wonders that lie,


and in every wicked deceit for those who are perishing because they have not accepted the love of truth so that they may be saved.


Therefore, God is sending them a deceiving power so that they may believe the lie,


that all who have not believed the truth but have approved wrongdoing may be condemned.


But we ought to give thanks to God for you always, brothers loved by the Lord, because God chose you as the firstfruits 7 for salvation through sanctification by the Spirit and belief in truth.


To this end he has (also) called you through our gospel to possess the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ.


Therefore, brothers, stand firm and hold fast to the traditions that you were taught, either by an oral statement or by a letter of ours. 8


May our Lord Jesus Christ himself and God our Father, who has loved us and given us everlasting encouragement and good hope through his grace,


encourage your hearts and strengthen them in every good deed and word.



1 [1-17] The Thessalonians have been shaken by a message purporting to come from Paul himself that the day of the Lord is already present. He warns against this deception in eschatology by citing a scenario of events that must first occur ( 2 Thes 2:3-12) before the end will come. The overall point Paul makes is the need to reject such lies as Satan sends; he also reaffirms the Thessalonians in their calling ( 2 Thes 2:13-14). They are to uphold what Paul himself has taught ( 2 Thes 2:15). There is a concluding prayer for their strengthening ( 2 Thes 2:16-17). As in 2 Thes 1:8-10, the Old Testament provides a good deal of coloring; cf especially Isaiah 14:13-14; 66:15, 18-21; Ezekiel 28:2-9; Daniel 11:36-37. The contents of 2 Thes 2:3b-8 may come from a previously existing apocalypse. The details have been variously interpreted. An alternative to the possibilities noted below understands that an oracular utterance, supposedly coming from a prophetic spirit ( 2 Thes 2:2-3a), has so disrupted the community's thinking that its effects may be compared to those of the mania connected with the worship of the Greek god Dionysus. On this view, the writer seems to allude in 2 Thes 2:6-8 to Dionysiac "seizure," although, of course, ironically, somewhat as Paul alludes to witchcraft ("an evil eye") in Gal 3:1 in speaking of the threat to faith posed by those disturbing the Galatians ( Gal 1:6-7; 5:10b). On this view of 2 Thes 2:2, the Greek participles katechon (rendered above as what is restraining) and katechon (the one who restrains) are to be translated "the seizing power" in 2 Thes 2:6 and "the seizer" in 2 Thes 2:7. They then allude to a pseudocharismatic force or spirit of Dionysiac character that has suddenly taken hold of the Thessalonian community (see 2 Thes 2:2). The addressees know ( 2 Thes 2:6) this force or spirit because of the problem it is causing. This pseudocharismatic force or spirit is a kind of anticipation and advance proof of the ultimate, climactic figure (the lawless one or the rebel, 2 Thes 2:3), of which the community has been warned (see the note on 1 Thes 3:3). It is, however, only the beginning of the end that the latter's manifestation entails; the end is not yet. For in the course of the mystery of lawlessness ( 2 Thes 2:7), false prophetism, after it ceases in the Thessalonian community, will be manifested in the world at large ( 2 Thes 2:8-12), where it will also be eliminated in turn by the Lord Jesus.

2 [2] "Spirit": a Spirit-inspired utterance or ecstatic revelation. An oral statement: literally, a "word" or pronouncement, not necessarily of ecstatic origin. A letter allegedly sent by us: possibly a forged letter, so that Paul calls attention in 2 Thes 3:17 to his practice of concluding a genuine letter with a summary note or greeting in his own hand, as at Gal 6:11-18 and elsewhere.

3 [3b-5] This incomplete sentence (anacoluthon, 2 Thes 2:4) recalls what the Thessalonians had already been taught, an apocalyptic scenario depicting, in terms borrowed especially from Daniel 11:36-37 and related verses, human self-assertiveness against God in the temple of God itself. The lawless one represents the climax of such activity in this account.

4 [4] Seat himself in the temple of God: a reflection of the language in Daniel 7:23-25; 8:9-12; 9:27; 11:36-37; 12:11 about the attempt of Antiochus IV Epiphanes to set up a statue of Zeus in the Jerusalem temple and possibly of the Roman emperor Caligula to do a similar thing ( Mark 13:14). Here the imagery suggests an attempt to install someone in the place of God, claiming that he is a god (cf Ezekiel 28:2). Usually, it is the Jerusalem temple that is assumed to be meant; on the alternative view sketched above (see the note on 2 Thes 2:1-17), the temple refers to the Christian community.

5 [6-7] What is restraining . . . the one who restrains: neuter and masculine, respectively, of a force and person holding back the lawless one. The Thessalonians know what is meant ( 2 Thes 2:6), but the terms, seemingly found only in this passage and in writings dependent on it, have been variously interpreted. Traditionally, 2 Thes 2:6 has been applied to the Roman empire and 2 Thes 2:7 to the Roman emperor (in Paul's day, Nero) as bulwarks holding back chaos (cf Romans 13:1-7). A second interpretation suggests that cosmic or angelic powers are binding Satan ( 2 Thes 2:9) and so restraining him; some relate this to an anti-Christ figure ( 1 John 2:18) or to Michael the archangel ( Rev 12:7-9; 20:1-3). A more recent view suggests that it is the preaching of the Christian gospel that restrains the end, for in God's plan the end cannot come until the gospel is preached to all nations ( Mark 13:10); in that case, Paul as missionary preacher par excellence is "the one who restrains," whose removal (death) will bring the end ( 2 Thes 2:7). On the alternative view (see the note on 2 Thes 2:1-17), the phrases should be referred to that which and to him who seizes (a prophet) in ecstasy so as to have him speak pseudo-oracles.

6 [7-12] The lawless one and the one who restrains are involved in an activity or process, the mystery of lawlessness, behind which Satan stands ( 2 Thes 2:9). The action of the Lord [Jesus] in overcoming the lawless one is described in Old Testament language (with the breath of his mouth; cf Isaiah 11:4; Job 4:9; Rev 19:15). His coming is literally the Lord's "parousia." The biblical concept of the "holy war," eschatologically conceived, may underlie the imagery.

7 [13] As the firstfruits: there is also strong manuscript evidence for the reading, "God chose you from the beginning," thus providing a focus on God's activity from beginning to end; firstfruits is a Pauline term, however; cf Romans 8:23; 11:16; 16:5 among other references.

8 [15] Reference to an oral statement and a letter ( 2 Thes 2:2) and the content here, including a formula of conclusion (cf 1 Cor 16:13; Gal 5:1), suggest that 2 Thes 2:1-15 or even 2 Thes 2:1-17 are to be taken as a literary unit, notwithstanding the incidental thanksgiving formula in 2 Thes 2:13.

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