CODE OF CANON LAW
BOOK II. THE PEOPLE OF GOD
PART III. INSTITUTES OF CONSECRATED LIFE AND SOCIETIES OF APOSTOLIC LIFE
INSTITUTES OF CONSECRATED LIFE
NORMS COMMON TO ALL INSTITUTES OF CONSECRATED LIFE (Cann. 573 - 606)
Can. 573 §1. The life consecrated through the profession of
the evangelical counsels is a stable form of living by which the faithful,
following Christ more closely under the action of the Holy Spirit, are totally
dedicated to God who is loved most of all, so that, having been dedicated by a
new and special title to His honor, to the building up of the Church, and to the
salvation of the world, they strive for the perfection of charity in the service
of the kingdom of God and, having been made an outstanding sign in the Church,
foretell the heavenly glory.
§2. The Christian faithful freely assume this form of
living in institutes of consecrated life canonically erected by competent
authority of the Church. Through vows or other sacred bonds according to the
proper laws of the institutes, they profess the evangelical counsels of chastity,
poverty, and obedience and, through the charity to which the counsels lead, are
joined in a special way to the Church and its mystery.
Can. 574 §1. The state of those who profess the evangelical
counsels in institutes of this type belongs to the life and holiness of the
Church and must be fostered and promoted by all in the Church.
§2. Certain Christian faithful are specially called by God
to this state so that they possess a special gift in the life of the Church and
contribute to its salvific mission, according to the purpose and spirit of the
Can. 575 The evangelical counsels, based on the teaching
and examples of Christ the Teacher, are a divine gift which the Church has
received from the Lord and preserves always through His grace.
Can. 576 It is for the competent authority of the Church to
interpret the evangelical counsels, to direct their practice by laws, and by
canonical approbation to establish the stable forms of living deriving from them,
and also, for its part, to take care that the institutes grow and flourish
according to the spirit of the founders and sound traditions.
Can. 577 In the Church there are a great many institutes of
consecrated life which have different gifts according to the grace which has
been given them: they more closely follow Christ who prays, or announces the
kingdom of God, or does good to people, or lives with people in the world, yet
who always does the will of the Father.
Can. 578 All must observe faithfully the mind and designs
of the founders regarding the nature, purpose, spirit, and character of an
institute, which have been sanctioned by competent ecclesiastical authority, and
its sound traditions, all of which constitute the patrimony of the same
Can. 579 Diocesan bishops, each in his own territory, can
erect institutes of consecrated life by formal decree, provided that the
Apostolic See has been consulted.
Can. 580 The aggregation of one institute of consecrated
life to another is reserved to the competent authority of the aggregating
institute; the canonical autonomy of the aggregated institute is always to be
Can. 581 To divide an institute into parts, by whatever
name they are called, to erect new parts, to join those erected, or to redefine
their boundaries belongs to the competent authority of the institute, according
to the norm of the constitutions.
Can. 582 Mergers and unions of institutes of consecrated
life are reserved to the Apostolic See only; confederations and federations are
also reserved to it.
Can. 583 Changes in institutes of consecrated life
affecting those things which had been approved by the Apostolic See cannot be
made without its permission.
Can. 584 The suppression of an institute pertains only to
the Apostolic See; a decision regarding the temporal goods of the institute is
also reserved to the Apostolic See.
Can. 585 It belongs to the competent authority of an
institute to suppress its parts.
Can. 586 §1. A just autonomy of life, especially of
governance, is acknowledged for individual institutes, by which they possess
their own discipline in the Church and are able to preserve their own patrimony
intact, as mentioned in can.
§2. It is for local ordinaries to preserve and safeguard
Can. 587 §1. To protect more faithfully the proper vocation
and identity of each institute, the fundamental code or constitutions of every
institute must contain, besides those things which are to be observed as stated
578, fundamental norms regarding governance of the institute, the discipline of
members, incorporation and formation of members, and the proper object of the
§2. A code of this type is approved by competent authority
of the Church and can be changed only with its consent.
§3. In this code spiritual and juridic elements are to be
joined together suitably; nevertheless, norms are not to be multiplied without
§4. Other norms established by competent authority of an
institute are to be collected suitably in other codes and, moreover, can be
reviewed appropriately and adapted according to the needs of places and times.
Can. 588 §1. By its very nature, the state of consecrated
life is neither clerical nor lay.
§2. That institute is called clerical which, by reason of
the purpose or design intended by the founder or by virtue of legitimate
tradition, is under the direction of clerics, assumes the exercise of sacred
orders, and is recognized as such by the authority of the Church.
§3. That institute is called lay which, recognized as such
by the authority of the Church, has by virtue of its nature, character, and
purpose a proper function defined by the founder or by legitimate tradition,
which does not include the exercise of sacred orders.
Can. 589 An institute of consecrated life is said to be of
pontifical right if the Apostolic See has erected it or approved it through a
formal decree. It is said to be of diocesan right, however, if it has been
erected by a diocesan bishop but has not obtained a decree of approval from the
Can. 590 §1. Inasmuch as institutes of consecrated life are
dedicated in a special way to the service of God and of the whole Church, they
are subject to the supreme authority of the Church in a special way.
§2. Individual members are also bound to obey the Supreme
Pontiff as their highest superior by reason of the sacred bond of obedience.
Can. 591 In order to provide better for the good of
institutes and the needs of the apostolate, the Supreme Pontiff, by reason of
his primacy in the universal Church and with a view to common advantage, can
exempt institutes of consecrated life from the governance of local ordinaries
and subject them to himself alone or to another ecclesiastical authority.
Can. 592 §1. In order better to foster the communion of
institutes with the Apostolic See, each supreme moderator is to send a brief
report of the state and life of the institute to the Apostolic See, in a manner
and at a time established by the latter.
§2. The moderators of every institute are to promote
knowledge of documents of the Holy See which regard the members entrusted to
them and are to take care about their observance.
Can. 593 Without prejudice to the prescript of ⇒ can.
586, institutes of pontifical right are immediately and exclusively subject to
the power of the Apostolic See in regards to internal governance and discipline.
Can. 594 Without prejudice to can.
586, an institute of diocesan right remains under the special care of the
Can. 595 §1. It is for the bishop of the principal seat to
approve the constitutions and confirm changes legitimately introduced into them,
without prejudice to those things which the Apostolic See has taken in hand, and
also to treat affairs of greater importance affecting the whole institute which
exceed the power of internal authority, after he has consulted the other
diocesan bishops, however, if the institute has spread to several dioceses.
§2. A diocesan bishop can grant dispensations from the
constitutions in particular cases.
Can. 596 §1. Superiors and chapters of institutes possess
that power over members which is defined in universal law and the constitutions.
§2. In clerical religious institutes of pontifical right,
however, they also possess ecclesiastical power of governance for both the
external and internal forum.
§3. The prescripts of cann. 131, 133, and 137-
144 apply to the power mentioned in §1.
Can. 597 §1. Any Catholic endowed with a right intention
who has the qualities required by universal and proper law and who is not
prevented by any impediment can be admitted into an institute of consecrated
§2. No one can be admitted without suitable preparation.
Can. 598 §1. Each institute, attentive to its own character
and purposes, is to define in its constitutions the manner in which the
evangelical counsels of chastity, poverty, and obedience must be observed for
its way of living.
§2. Moreover, all members must not only observe the
evangelical counsels faithfully and fully but also arrange their life according
to the proper law of the institute and thereby strive for the perfection of
Can. 599 The evangelical counsel of chastity assumed for
the sake of the kingdom of heaven, which is a sign of the world to come and a
source of more abundant fruitfulness in an undivided heart, entails the
obligation of perfect continence in celibacy.
Can. 600 The evangelical counsel of poverty in imitation of
Christ who, although he was rich, was made poor for us, entails, besides a life
which is poor in fact and in spirit and is to be led productively in moderation
and foreign to earthly riches, a dependence and limitation in the use and
disposition of goods according to the norm of the proper law of each institute.
Can. 601 The evangelical counsel of obedience, undertaken
in a spirit of faith and love in the following of Christ obedient unto death,
requires the submission of the will to legitimate superiors, who stand in the
place of God, when they command according to the proper constitutions.
Can. 602 The life of brothers or sisters proper to each
institute, by which all the members are united together as a special family in
Christ, is to be defined in such a way that it becomes a mutual support for all
in fulfilling the vocation of each. Moreover, by their communion as brothers or
sisters rooted and founded in charity, members are to be an example of universal
reconciliation in Christ.
Can. 603 §1. In addition to institutes of consecrated life,
the Church recognizes the eremitic or anchoritic life by which the Christian
faithful devote their life to the praise of God and the salvation of the world
through a stricter withdrawal from the world, the silence of solitude, and
assiduous prayer and penance.
§2. A hermit is recognized by law as one dedicated to God
in consecrated life if he or she publicly professes in the hands of the diocesan
bishop the three evangelical counsels, confirmed by vow or other sacred bond,
and observes a proper program of living under his direction.
Can. 604 §1. Similar to these forms of consecrated life is
the order of virgins who, expressing the holy resolution of following Christ
more closely, are consecrated to God by the diocesan bishop according to the
approved liturgical rite, are mystically betrothed to Christ, the Son of God,
and are dedicated to the service of the Church.
§2. In order to observe their own resolution more
faithfully and to perform by mutual assistance service to the Church in harmony
with their proper state, virgins can be associated together.
Can. 605 The approval of new forms of consecrated life is
reserved only to the Apostolic See. Diocesan bishops, however, are to strive to
discern new gifts of consecrated life granted to the Church by the Holy Spirit
and are to assist promoters so that these can express their proposals as well as
possible and protect them by appropriate statutes; the general norms contained
in this section are especially to be utilized.
Can. 606 Those things which are established for institutes
of consecrated life and their members are equally valid in law for either sex,
unless it is otherwise evident from the context of the wording or the nature of