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This is the title of the Summer 2001 issue of The Hedgehog Review, published at the University of Virginia’s Institute for Advanced Studies in Culture (U.S.A.). It is heavy with technical terms and at times even jargon, but some fascinating contributions mean it is useful and interesting. The tone is set by remarks like the following, in the introduction: “our thinking about the body is simply not keeping pace with the complex technological, economic, and social pressures imposed upon the body…. This issue of The Hedgehog Review brings to the surface some of the underlying assumptions and understandings of the body that animate contemporary social, political, and bioethical controversies” and “explores how the pressures and changes unique to our historical moment challenge what it means to be human”.

Bryan S. Turner reflects on the solidarity between humans precisely as embodied beings in a sophisticated technological society, where the traditional religious metaphors based on bodily experience have faded, since “the dominance of technology has brought about an erosion of a sense of common ontology” (8). This strikes at the heart of concepts like the Body of Christ and signals a possible crisis of what it is to be human, something clearly foreseen by Heidegger. Society’s (political, familial and ecclesiastical) institutions constitute “society”, whose function is to protect human beings in their frailty and vulnerability. But society’s institutions are precarious, and this mirrors each person’s experience of embodiment, which is a process of learning one’s place in a social context, “the lived experience of the sensuous body”, a collective project and “the project of making a self” (13). What has happened in modern times has been progressive de-institutionalisation; as a result, the background becomes “less reliable, more open to negotiation, culturally thinner, and increasingly an object of reflection…. The objective and sacred institutions of the past recede, and modern life becomes subjective, contingent and uncertain” (15). People themselves feel as fluid and uncertain as the institutions around them. Institutions are essentially conservative and cannot often respond to such profound social change; they are unable to provide the security people naturally require.

Far from wanting to offer a justification for rampant individualism, this description of social ontology is meant to explain interconnectedness or the essentially social character of human life, and “to provide a foundation for a sociological and normative defense of human rights as protective institutions” (17). Human bodily frailty offers a foundation for human rights discourse, unlike forms of cultural relativism that justify abuse. Turner gives a brief account of the way some writers strive to maintain a certain relativism that allows for “the universality of the treatment of human beings as human beings” (21); he maintains it is possible to include both Heidegger’s care and respect for difference and Rorty’s universal condemnation of cruelty. Human vulnerability has gone beyond risks as perceived by individuals; now there are risks inherent in modern societies, both in the natural environment and in the culture. A further change is the increasing irrelevance of traditional religious bodily metaphors in a postmodern environment, where “the intimacy between self, body and cosmos has been shattered by the globalization of electronic information” (30). The power of the wounds of Christ as a major “symbol of human suffering and frailty”, along with the blood of Christ, “a paradoxical means to salvation” (loc. cit.), derived their power from the fact that they expressed human vulnerability, but the force of such symbols has faded. The loss of shared symbols and metaphors destroys the foundations of the language of community and trivialises culture. Privatised religion thus becomes “an aesthetic choice relating to lifestyle” (31). For Turner, modernity clearly fails to recognise that “to be human is to be vulnerable”, and its promise to make us safe and less vulnerable would “thus bring about the end of humanity” (32), were it ever to prove successful.

There is also a review of Religion and the Body (edited by Sarah Coakley) by R. Marie Griffith. The material originated in a conference at the University of Lancaster (England), and the editor’s introduction insists that it is an attempt “to raise implicit questions about the spiritual and philosophical impoverishment of our current ‘body’ obsessions, and yet also about the superficiality of consumerist ‘magpie’ raids on Eastern religious bodily practice” (quoted on p. 117). As Christianity’s influence on Western culture has receded, preoccupation with the body has increased dramatically, from obsession with fitness to pathological disorders like anorexia nervosa. This fits perfectly into a cultural horizon where death is the end and theosis has more or less vanished, at least in its more traditional sense. A clear conviction behind this book is that “serious questions about the body” are “profoundly religious in nature” (119). There is a severe asceticism of the body in a world that is chaotic. Elsewhere, it is clear that religious experiences can happen only in a body that has been ‘tuned in’ to them, so to speak. However, the essay by Mary Midgley traces the “cult of the cerebral”, since she is convinced that even those who have struggled hard against Enlightenment rationalism have been preoccupied with the mind rather than with the body. The essays seem to cover all major religions, though there is nothing about New Age ‘religion’. Indeed, the reviewer is puzzled by what she clearly sees as a one-sidedness on the editor’s part; she suggests that “Coakley might have been wise to defend not the ‘body’ but ‘religion’ in her title” (122).

This issue of the review also contains two replies to Professor Turner’s article, and articles on bodily enhancement, the elusiveness of the body and the trade in human organs (referred to as “Neo-Cannibalism”). There is also an interview on contemporary preoccupations with bodily beauty and a bibliographical essay.


Source: The Hedgehog Review, Volume 3, Number 2, Summer 2001.





La Conferencia Episcopal Ecuatoriana ha decidido entrar en el grupo que adquiere el canal “Sí TV”. Con esta decisión la Iglesia del Ecuador se propone servir a la colectividad en las áreas de la información, la educación y el entretenimiento, según se dice en un comunicado de prensa de la Secretaría General de la Conferencia Episcopal.

La iniciativa pretende –dicen los obispos– poder contar con una programación televisiva de tipo familiar, difusora de los valores humanos y cristianos que se hallan en la esencia de la cultura nacional.

El canal de televisión actuará con absoluta independencia de intereses particulares en el orden político y económico y observará una “actitud de respeto a la dignidad de las personas e instituciones”, además, estará “comprometida con el sistema democrático y atenta a las necesidades de las mayorías, especialmente de los más pobres”.

Para llevar adelante esta empresa, la Conferencia Episcopal constituyó una fundación sin fines de lucro, denominada Comunicación para la Familia, integrada por siete laicos, responsable de la gestión.


Cf. Zenit, 23-10-2001.





È stata inaugurata il 30 settembre 2001, presso la Pontificia Università “Angelicum” di Roma, la Conferenza biennale della International Council Universities Saint Thomas Aquinas (ICUSTA).

A presiedere la Celebrazione eucaristica di apertura e a pronunciare l’omelia è stato il Cardinale Zenon Grocholewski, Prefetto della Congregazione per l’Educazione Cattolica. Basandosi sulle letture e sul Vangelo del giorno, il Cardinale ha voluto sottolineare che, secondo l’insegnamento di Gesù, “nel nostro modo di pensare e di giudicare non dobbiamo limitarci soltanto all’esistenza terrena dell’uomo, ma dobbiamo considerare tutta la realtà, ossia la prospettiva eterna dell’esistenza umana”.

Infatti, è questo l’orizzonte “in cui si muoveva, con grande sollecitudine e coerenza, san Tommaso d’Aquino”. Egli “ha coltivato proprio la saggezza che prende in considerazione tutta la realtà, terrena ed eterna” e ha capito come fede e ragione s’incontrano nell’unica verità.

“Così, essendo un maestro della saggezza cristiana che prende in considerazione tutta la verità, Tommaso è anche architetto dell’università, uno dei suoi pilastri, in quanto ha capito a fondo il doppio problema dell’università: la ricerca costante della verità e la vera armonia tra i due ordini complementari della verità, quello di natura e quello di fede”.


Cfr.: L’Osservatore Romano, 7 ottobre 2001, p. 7.



BRESIL : L’Associação Cultural da Arquidiocese de São Sebastião


L’Associação Cultural da Arquidiocese de São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro a été fondée en 1988, ayant personnalité juridique-canonique. Son conseil, conduit par un Président et une Direction Exécutive, est composé de quarante membres désignés par l’Archevêque, avec mandat de deux ans.

Ce conseil est composé d’écrivains, peintres, artistes de TV, de cinéma, ainsi que de professeurs universitaires, recteurs, hommes d’affaires, représentants des diverses activités culturelles.

Tous les ans l’Association réalise au Sumaré, en régime de retraite, des forums avec des leaders des différents secteurs de la société pour réfléchir sur les grands problèmes du Brésil. Font partie de ces Forums le Vice-président de la République, des Ministres d’État, des gouvernants de provinces, des hommes d’affaires et des intellectuels.

Dans les dernières années les thèmes choisis ont été les suivants : 1995 – Violence urbaine, 1996 – Mondialisation; 1997 – Préservation de la famille, 1998 – Vieillir en santé, responsabilité de tous, 1999 – Jeunesse, réalité d’aujourd’hui, perspectives futures, 2001 – Chemins pour un développement soutenu.

L’Association réalise aussi des événements populaires, des spectacles de rue qui rassemblent une moyenne de 60.000 personnes : L’Acte de Saint Sébastien, La Passion du Christ (télévisée pour tout le pays), Corpus Christi, La Fête de Saint Pierre.

Tout les ans ceux qui se distinguent dans les arts, la littérature, communication et divulgation de la foi, reçoivent le prix São Sebastião de Cultura.

Depuis huit ans, l’Association produit un programme de Radio, d’une heure de durée, appelée Vox populi qui tous les jours est transmis par la Radio Catedral FM. Ainsi qu’un programme hebdomadaire de télévision, nominé Em Pauta, transmis par la TV Canção Nova pour tout le Brésil, Portugal et l’Afrique du Nord.

L’Association, cette année, a réformé et a réouvert le musée d’art religieuse de Rio de Janeiro. L’Association aussi publie des livres et des magazines. En 2000, elle, a publié le livré Igrejas católicas do Rio de Janeiro. Um passeio visual.


Cf. : Sérgio Pereira da Silva, Président du l’Associação Cultural da Arquidiocese de São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Benjamin Constant, 23 – 4o andar, 20241-150 – Glória – RIO DE JANIERO, Tél.: (+55-21) 292.3132 R: 407; 221.1067.





Those who are hesitant about revealing personal data during communications via Internet may be wise, but even they are not as safe from recognition as they may think. Although Internet is so efficient it has struck organisations and individuals as a blessing, there are some risks lurking not too far beneath the surface. The case of DoubleClick, Inc. is instructive in this regard. The company was able to compile detailed information on the “browsing habits” of internet users by planting cookies on computer hard drives. These allow web sites and advertising companies to know exactly what people have looked at and how they searched for it. Most users had no idea this was happening. Late in 1999, DoubleClick bought another company, which had a database of the names, addresses and off-line shopping habits of 90 million households. When that was added to on-line profiles, “shopping that once seemed anonymous was being archived in personally identifiable dossiers”. But the project was halted to allow the U.S, government and the world of electronic commerce to agree on privacy standards.

However, there were already unusually sophisticated devices at work that allowed domestic appliances to communicate with each other, with the consequence that an incredible amount of detail on people’s private habits might be accumulated. Likewise, most large companies have admitted that they monitor their employees’ telephone and Internet communications. Electronic booksellers developed software that could discover how many times customers read parts of a book, and whether they had copied it or sent it to friends, thus allowing them to charge accordingly. Everyone who has bought anything through the Internet for a second time is well aware that the vendor’s software is able to make suggestions on the basis of earlier purchases or inquiries. Another device – the GUID or Global Unique Identifier – can link every document, e-mail message and “chat room” communication “with the real-world identity of the individual who created it”. Similar identifiers are implanted into every document generated using software like Word 97.

Influential groups concerned about the effect of so much personal data being so readily available to commercial organisations have frequently appealed to governments to legislate, in order to regulate how such information is used. While the European Union declared that “information gathered for one purpose could not be sold or disclosed for another purpose without the consent of the individual concerned”, the United States was less forthcoming, even in a situation where flourishing companies could purchase more data from failed or ailing firms. There seems to be a simple reason for the failure to enact solid legislation to protect people’s privacy: although there are so many people concerned about privacy, they are individuals and generally anonymous, whereas the companies involved are well organised and well financed.

One reaction has been to use software that enables people to browse the web anonymously or even pseudonymously, but this brings other risks. The problem has to be confronted on several fronts – legal, political and technological. The question seems to be whether people are prepared to be resigned in the face of comments like that of the chief executive officer of a large American software company, who said: “You already have zero privacy”. More recent events mean that governments feel the need to enhance national security by having unlimited access to information on what use people are making of the internet, but such a situation creates a culture where there are questions about how vulnerable people’s private lives should be.


Source: Encyclopædia Britannica 2001 Book of the Year, p. 178f.





Según un sondeo llevado a cabo por la Comisión Europea entre abril y mayo, los jóvenes europeos utilizan cada vez más los nuevos medios de comunicación, especialmente los teléfonos móviles (el 80%) y el ordenador (el 56%). Participan poco en organizaciones: mientras que el 28% se involucra en actividades deportivas, sólo el 8% se adhiere a una asociación religiosa, el 4% a un partido político y el 2% a un movimiento de defensa de los derechos humanos.


Cf.: Zenit, 10-11-2001.





Il primo e unico Museo diocesano di Arte Sacra esistente nel Molise è stato inaugurato sabato 3 novembre 2001, presso la Chiesa della Santissima Trinità nella diocesi di Trivento. Attualmente, gli arredi sacri esposti provengono prevalentemente dal tesoro della Cattedrale. In particolare, vi sono tre preziose statue lignee del XIV secolo, una splendida collezione di paramenti sacri che vanno dal XVI al XIX secolo, la pianeta attribuita a Manfredi Canofilo, Vescovo di Trivento nel 1507, un antico reliquiario cinquecentesco contenente la Sacra Spina, parte della corona che cinse in capo di Gesù, che giunse a Trivento nel 1500.

Anche se il progetto non è ancora definitivamente concluso, quello inaugurato è davvero una pietra miliare nella storia cristiana della regione molisana – ha sottolineato l’Arcivescovo Francesco Marchisano, Presidente della Pontificia Commissione per i Beni Culturali della Chiesa.

Un ponte tra passato e futuro, spiega il Vescovo Antonio Santucci, questa deve essere la funzione delle opere, soprattutto paramenti liturgici e suppellettili sacre, esposte nella Chiesa della SS. Trinità, ora adibita a Museo (realizzato con fondi di esclusiva provenienza ecclesiale).


Il Museo Diocesano di Milano è stato voluto già da due Predecessori del Cardinale Carlo Maria Martini, attuale Arcivescovo di Milano: il beato Cardinale Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster ed il Cardinale Giovanni Battista Montini – poi Papa Paolo VI. Quest’ultimo stipulò, il 20 settembre 1960, una convenzione con il Comune di Milano nella quale si prefigurava la destinazione del Chiostro di Sant’Eustorgio a sede del Museo Diocesano. L’istituzione del Museo è stata auspicata dalla Conferenza Episcopale Italiana nel 1992.

La solenne inaugurazione è avvenuta lunedì, 5 novembre 2001, alla presenza del Presidente della Repubblica Italiana, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi. Accanto al Cardinale Martini, a Mons. Luigi Crivelli, Presidente della Fondazione Sant’Ambrogio (che è proprietaria del museo) e a Paolo Biscottini, Direttore del Museo, erano presenti l’Arcivescovo Francesco Marchisano, Presidente della Pontificia Commissione per i Beni Culturali della Chiesa, il Vescovo ausiliare Giuseppe Merisi, l’On. Giuliano Urbani, Ministro per i Beni Culturali, il Sindaco di Milano Gabriele Albertini, nonché numerose autorità.

Il Museo espone 400 opere su 4.500 metri quadrati ed è diviso in dieci sezioni: 1. quella dedicata a Sant’Ambrogio; 2. le opere provenienti dal territorio dell’arcidiocesi dal XIV al XVI secolo; 3. la sezione di oreficeria, sec. XIV-XIX; 4. la Via Crucis di Gaetano Previati; 5. i “Fondi oro”; 6. il ciclo dell’Arciconfraternita del Santissimo Sacramento; 7. la collezione Monti; 8. la collezione Visconti; 9. la collezione Pozzobonelli; 10. la collezione Erba Odescalchi. Le sezioni sono, in gran parte, suscettibili di ampliamento, mentre è ancora da studiare la sistemazione della parte relativa al Novecento.

Il Museo è aperto tutti i giorni, tranne il lunedì, dalle ore 10.00 alle 18.00, il giovedì fino alle 22.00.


Cfr. L’Osservatore Romano, 7-11-2001, p. 7.





“Cuestiones emergentes en el diálogo fe-cultura” es el título de un curso organizado por la Cátedra Pedro Poveda de la Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca (UPSA), que tuvo lugar del 12 al 15 de noviembre, en la sede de la UPSA.

El día 12 se desarrollaron dos conferencias sobre “Diálogo fe-cultura en los orígenes del cristianismo” y “Pedro Poveda: su peculliar contribución al diálogo fe-cultura” que fueron expuestas por la científica del CSIS, Cira Morano, y por la catedrática de Historia de la Institución Teresiana, Asunción Ortiz, respectivamente. El día 13 la catedrática de Historia de la Educación, Consuelo Flecha, y la catedrática de Bibliografía, Isabel de Torres, hablaron de “El nuevo protagonismo de las mujeres”. El día 14 estuvo dedicado a “Naturaleza y cultura” por las profesoras Milagros Alcubilla e Itziar Aguinagalde. El reto de las migraciones en sociedades multiculturales fue el tema de estudio del día 15 por la catedrática de Investigación Educativa, Margarita Bartolomé.

El obispo de Orense, monseñor Carlos Osoro, ofreció una conferencia pública sobre “Sacerdotes en la entraña de nuestra cultura”.


Cf. Zenit, 9-11-2001.





Le 6 octobre 2001, à l’occasion de la clôture du Festival International de Biarritz, le prix Union Latine du film documentaire a été attribué au film brésilien Onde a terra acaba du réalisateur Sérgio Machado. Onde a terra acaba est le fruit d’une recherche de deux années sur la vie et l’œuvre de Mário Peixoto, cinéaste brésilien décédé en 1992. Le titre du documentaire est un hommage à un film que Mário a commencé après avoir réalisé, en 1931, son célèbre Limite, considéré par la critique comme le meilleur film brésilien de tous les temps. Le scénario de ce documentaire original est construit à partir du montage de faits quotidiens, d’interview et de lettres de Mário Peixoto, conférant ainsi un style autobiographique à ce documentaire. Ce film est réalisé grâce à de rares images d’archives.

Fiche technique : Photographie : Antônio Luiz Mendes. Montage: Isabelle Rathery. Musique originale : Antônio Pinto et Ed Cortês. 73 minutes 50, couleur et noir et blanc, 16 mm, VO portugais, sous-titres anglais.


Le film documentaire Latido Latino, réalisé par Eterio Ortega Santillana et Jose P. Estepa, a reçu la Mention Spéciale du Jury. Ce film montre la pénétration et l’influence de la société et de la culture latine aux États-Unis. Ce documentaire se concentre sur la ville de New York, melting-pot de cultures et vitrine de ce que sera l’Amérique demain. Plus de cinquante personnalités du monde latin et anglo-saxon appartenant à différents milieux tels que musique, cinéma, peinture, photographie, médias, théâtre, politique et religion, permettent d’analyser ce qu’il est convenu d’appeler le «Latin Boom». Ce documentaire essaye, avant tout, d’éviter les stéréotypes et le regard bien souvent trop superficiel porté sur cet important phénomène de société. Latido Latino combine allègrement les points de vue de personnalités connues avec ceux de personnes anonymes, souvent unies par leurs pensées, leur destinée, voire parfois par le hasard.

Fiche technique : 60 minutes, VO espagnole, sous-titres français, 35 mm, couleur.


Source : unión latina – union latine – unione latina – união latina – uniunea latină, DCC – Programme audiovisuel, 131, rue du Bac, F-75007 PARIS,,



Second Spring. A Journal of Faith & Culture


The Centre for Faith and Culture at Plater College in Oxford (England) has published the first issue of its new journal, after ten years of preparation. It is described as “a forum to explore, from within the Catholic tradition, the beauty that inspires conversion to Christianity and the creation of a Christian culture”. It will not focus exclusively on the Church and theology, but cast its net wider to include science, literature, economics, art, architecture, history and so on. It is not an attempt to reconstruct a mythical Golden Age from the past of Catholicism, but a response to “a new cultural moment”. It is one expression of the activities of “a complex network… of individuals and institutions in many countries that all wanted roughly the same thing: a thing that is hard to put into words, but which we all recognise when we see it. It has something to do with hope, and something to do with beauty”. Most of the work behind it has been done by the editors, two married couples who came to Catholicism from other spiritual experiences: Stratford and Léonie Caldecott, and Philip and Carol Zaleski. The first item in this first issue is a talk by Archbishop Charles Chaput on The Church as Bearer of Wisdom. There is a reflection on the best way to conceive of heaven by Carol Zaleski, and a piece by Avril Bruten on the “courtesy” of Our Lady, focusing on two mediaeval texts, Sir Gawain and the Grene Knight and The Pearl. John Saward offers a comment on Saint Thomas Aquinas’ treatment of the Eucharist in the third part of the Summa Theologiae. Léonie Caldecott uses the paintings of Jan Vermeer to develop her view of the feminine genius “as a source of cultural renewal and stability”. Stratford Caldecott has some thoughts on spiritual exegesis, using the writings of Adrienne von Speyr to illustrate his approach. There is an essay by Kenneth Brooks on The Dignity of Labour. Other items in Second Spring are Philip Zaleski’s Letter from America, a Chestertonian piece called Last Things on eugenics, poems by Francis Etheredge and Anna Rist, a regular feature called Liturgy Forum and news and information from the Centre for Faith and Culture. Of particular interest are two initiatives for young people, the Rose-Round and Questions, Questions, as well as the work done to support Catholic artists and architects by the Guild of Our Lady and Saint Luke.


Source: Second Spring, issue 1 – 2001.





À la demande de l’UNESCO, la direction générale pour la Culture, division des arts et de l’entreprise culturelle, a confié à l’Organisation Catholique Internationale du Cinéma et de l’Audiovisuel (OCIC) une étude sur le thème « Le cinéma, une marchandise pas comme les autres ? »

Considérant que la diversité culturelle était l’une des principales richesses de l’humanité et qu’à ce titre, elle devait être réaffirmée et développée, la 31ème Conférence générale de l’UNESCO estime que cette diversité s’exprime aussi bien par la variété des politiques et des produits culturels que par la différence des origines culturelles.

Prenant en compte le fait que la mondialisation pourrait établir des liens plus étroits que jamais, et enrichir les cultures et leurs interractions, mais aussi qu’elle posait des défis à la diversité culturelle, l’UNESCO a invité les États membres à reconnaître l’importance et à soutenir cette diversité, comme aussi à « renforcer le rôle de chef de file de l’UNESCO quant à l’affirmation et à la promotion de la diversité culturelle dans le contexte d’un monde en transition ».

La Conférence générale rappelle que le monde se trouve confronté à un nouveau cycle de négociations commerciales au sein de l’Organisation Mondiale du Commerce (OMC) et qu’il importe, à cet égard, de mesurer pleinement l’importance des enjeux des négociations multilatérales sur le statut des biens et des services culturels.

En termes d’activités, il a été décidé que l’UNESCO devait développer sa fonction de « forum intellectuel » pour les questions liées aux incidences des nouvelles données internationales sur les produits culturels.

Plus particulièrement, il a été convenu que les dispositions pertinentes du Plan d’action de la Conférence intergouvernementale sur les politiques culturelles, tenue à Stockholm en 1998, devaient donner lieu à une relecture approfondie de cette conviction fondamentale : les biens et les services culturels doivent être pleinement reconnus et traités comme des biens de consommation particuliers et non comme des marchandises ordinaires. La Conférence sur « Culture, marché et mondialisation » tenue à l’UNESCO en juin 1999 devait donner lieu à de nouveaux approfondissements, sur la base de consultations régionales, en vue de sensibiliser les États membres aux enjeux des négociations commerciales internationales traitant, notamment, du cinéma et de l’audiovisuel.

Dans le cadre de la collaboration du Conseil International du Cinéma, de la Télévision et de l’Audiovisuel (C.I.C.T.), qui entretient des relations formelles associatives avec l’UNESCO, l’Organisation Catholique Internationale du Cinéma et de l’Audiovisuel (OCIC) s’est vu confier, en qualité d’Organisation internationale membre, le soin de coordonner une contribution interrégionale appliquée au secteur cinématographique, considéré comme une des industries culturelles majeures.

L’étude a été réalisée et transmise à l’UNESCO, le 15 juillet 2001. Elle comporte un préambule relatif au cinéma, entre l’exception culturelle et économique dans le contexte de la mondialisation, ainsi que six chapitres respectivement consacrés aux régions suivantes:

Asie – le cinéma indien : Canned dreams of subvertion par Jacob Srampickal (Inde) ; De la morosité à l’espoir, par Gaston Roberge (Inde) ; Film and cultural identity in the asian region, by Tissa Abeysekara (Sri Lanka);

Pacifique – Communication and Culture in the Pacific, par Peter Malone (Australie) ;

Afrique – La question des identités et de la diversité culturelle à l’ère de la mondialisation, au regard du cinéma et de la télévision en Afrique, par Lino Pungi (Rép. Dém. Congo) ;

Amérique latine – Le cinéma: est-ce une marchandise comme les autres en Amérique latine ?, par José Tavares de Barros (Brésil) ;

Antilles et Caraïbes – L’identité culturelle du cinéma antillais et caribéen, par Osange Silou (Guadeloupe) ;

Moyen-Orient – Arab screen independant film festival, par Sheik Hamad bin Thamer Al-Thani & Mohamed Maklouf (Qatar).


Source : Centre Catholique International pour l’UNESCO, 9, rue Cler, F-75007 PARIS, Tél. : (+33-1) 4705.1759, Fax : (+33-1) 4556.9092,





L’Associazione Italia-Australia ha presentato al Comune di Roma e alla Quarta Circoscrizione la richiesta per l’assegnazione del terreno sul quale costruire, con il finanziamento di enti pubblici e privati australiani, la Casa Australia, un centro culturale accademico per corsi di studi universitari che agevoli l’inserimento di laureati nella vita professionale dei due Paesi.

Si tratta di 7.000 mq. in un punto collinare della zona di Roma, nella parte alta del quartiere di Monte Sacro dove è sorto il primo quartiere urbano australiano. L’area adiacente è già stata destinata alla costruzione di un centro culturale cattolico.







La Iglesia católica panameña construye el que será el canal de televisión más grande de Centroamérica. Su director, el religioso Manuel Blanquér y Planeéis, anunció en un acto oficial en las nuevas instalaciones de FETV-Canal 5, que esperan la entrega de las nuevas infraestructuras a finales del mes de noviembre.

3 millones de dólares se invertirán en la adquisición del más moderno equipo de producción y transmisión que le permitirá a FETV realizar programas en vivo en cualquiera de sus tres enormes estudios, diseñados específicamente.

Blanquér, quien dirige el canal católico desde su apertura hace una década, indicó que espera lanzar su señal al aire desde las nuevas instalaciones en febrero próximo, manteniendo la programación educativa y de defensa y promoción de los valores cívicos y morales con programas dirigidos a los jóvenes y adultos.

El empresario Vicente Pascual, presidente del comité de edificación, apuntó que este proyecto, iniciado hace unos tres años con base en colaboraciones y financiación bancaria, “es un acto de fe en el futuro del país”.

Por su parte, el arzobispo de Panamá, José Dimas Cedeño, agregó que la obra comunicativa y social de FETV “es un símbolo de la sociedad que está por construir”.


Cf. Zenit, 12-11-2001.





The August 2001 bulletin from the Institute for International Relations in Zagreb (Croatia) contains the usual rich mixture of items. The networking section provides information on 14 initiatives; “Research and Programmes” ranges from statistical data to courses and job opportunities; there are the regular sections on UNESCO, the Council of Europe and the European Union, Reports from Conferences and brief notices on 22 international meetings and conferences. The section dealing with documentation exchange covers 21 very varied sources, and there are notes on 9 new publications in the field of culture. The “News and Information” section mentions Manifesta 4, the European Biennial of Contemporary Art, to be held in Frankfurt am Main (Germany) in 2002, the British and International Music Yearbook 2002, the European Cultural Networks directory published by Balkankult in Belgrade (Yugoslavia), the 7th Takasaki International Art and Music Competition for High School Students 2001, to be held in Japan, information on a compact disc of Electro Acoustic Music from the Netherlands 2000 and more.

The dossier in this issue is on The Role of the Arts in Processes of Social Change. It includes talks from a conference held in Budapest in December 2000. The joint organisers were the Austrian Culture Service, on behalf of the artsandeducation network, and the Hungarian Nullpont organisation. Sabine Schaschl gives a brief overview of the conference, which is followed by Michael Wimmer’s introduction, in which he explains the history and current role of the Austrian Cultural Service (ÖKS). He stresses the essential links between the arts and education, and casts some light on the social, economic and political bias in both processes. Erhard Busek, the special representative of the Austrian government for EU enlargement, spoke on the question “Can Europe Convince on a Cultural Level?” For him the current – postmodern – situation is one where people have lost not only the moral message of the Enlightenment but also “key ideas such as cultural identity, rational progress and universal justice”; he is trying to find a way out of the negative dialectic of the late twentieth century. He suggests a bold departure from the need to maintain our identity in order to replace it with “true global socio-cultural plurality…, because Europe represents diversity in which you can find the unity of the basic ideas of mankind”. He suggests abandoning Cartesian epistemology in order better to grasp “diversity, marginalization and hierarchy”, abandoning a universal concept of reason in favour of a “cross-cultural concept for the translation and recognition of varying cultural ideas which nonetheless share an equal interest in peace, cultural dignity” and so on. The humanities should no longer be allowed to reinforce or legitimise “national narratives and cultural ideologies”, but rather involve “critical, deconstructionist studies of European cultures”, a greater awareness of what is common and what is different in European cultures, comparative studies of European and non-European cultures and “self-critical contemplation of the politically influential tension of ‘we’ and ‘the others’ within a European frame to define the problematic relationship between European cultures and ‘other’ cultures in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America”. The final paragraphs reveal the true goal of such changes – a greater integration in a globalised economy.

Renata Salecl offers a sombre reflection on “Art and the New Age of Anxiety”. Her focus on the experience of military personnel and on military psychiatry leads in across some rough ground to a consideration of how art relates to the contemporary wish to escape from anxiety rather than confront it. But much art resists this and is totally realistic, non-escapist. The amount of bodily violence in current visual art is an odd twist on Foucault’s idea that we should make ourselves works of art. The way people perceive their bodies is clearly changing, but must never deafen us to “Kierkegaard’s famous prediction that the possibility of immortality is more horrible for the subject than death”. Max Fuchs discusses the relationship between arts, culture, economy and development; he focuses on the activities in these fields of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. The concluding question is crucial: whether the almost exclusively economic aims of the OECD could prevent recognition of the important results of art education.


Source: Culturelink 34, published by Culturelink/IMO, Zagreb.




Témoignage du Diocèse d’Arras


Situation difficile pour celui qui n’a pas bien assimilé les termes de la loi de 1905 : pourquoi une commune, qui est propriétaire de son église, ne peut-elle en disposer comme elle le veut ? Exemple parfait de question à laquelle la commission diocésaine d’art sacré doit répondre régulièrement. Et, dans ce cas précis, elle répond que la loi de 1905 désigne clairement l’affectataire du lieu, le curé, comme son utilisateur exclusif. Tout autre utilisateur d’une église doit préalablement faire la demande au prêtre qui en réfère à la CDAS pour avis. Voilà l’une des fonctions de la CDAS. Mais son rôle est bien plus vaste.

Tous les travaux qui concernent les églises sont sous la responsabilité de l’évêque. C’est pourquoi Vatican II a demandé que chaque diocèse ait une commission d’art sacré chargée de relayer son évêque dans le suivi de la construction et de l’aménagement des lieux de culte. Constituée d’hommes et de femmes compétents dans les domaines artistique et liturgique, elle veille au respect et à l’entretien du patrimoine mobilier et immobilier utilisé par l’Église. Elle a essentiellement un rôle consultatif, mais la qualité de son travail doit être reconnue de tous. Aussi, est-il primordial qu’elle entretienne des contacts avec les Monuments historiques, les conservateurs de musées, les architectes, etc.

Quand une commune rurale désire désaffecter son église parce que l’on n’y célèbre plus la messe ou pour toute autre raison, la CDAS intervient pour préserver un espace spirituel dans le village. De toute façon, une désaffectation ne se fait qu’avec l’accord conjoint de l’évêque et du préfet. Mais cela reste un fait plutôt rare. L’une des dernières a été la désaffectation, avant destruction, de l’église Saint-François-de-Sales à Divion intervenue il y a dix ans.

Quand un artiste souhaite s’exprimer de façon éclatante dans une église, la CDAS dresse les limites du « Liturgiquement possible ».

Quand une municipalité couche noir sur blanc ses conditions pur l’utilisation d’une église prochainement rouverte après 55 ans de travaux, la CDAS fait valoir les droits légaux de la paroisse.


Le trésor de la cathédrale d’Arras

Lors de sa dernière réunion, la CDAS a été invitée à se pencher sur la situation très particulière du trésor de la cathédrale d’Arras. Rappelons que la cathédrale est l’un des corps de bâtiments d’un ensemble qui contient aussi le musée. Pour des raisons de sécurité, le trésor se trouve accessible non pas par la cathédrale, mais par le musée. Tous les objets de ce trésor sont gérés par la municipalité. Ils ne peuvent en aucun cas rejoindre les collections du musée, mais sont toujours à la disposition du culte (le saint Cierge, par exemple). Mais il se trouve que les salles du trésor sont mal indiquées, inaccessibles aux personnes à mobilité réduite, et parfois fermées La CDAS envisage d’étudier la question avec les responsables du musée.


Le patrimoine religieux et la nouvelle évangélisation

Le Conseil Pontifical de la Culture insiste sur l’importance de la formation culturelle et spirituelle non seulement des enfants en âge de bénéficier de la catéchèse, mais aussi des adultes souvent éloignés de la communauté chrétienne et privés d’une réelle initiation à la foi. L’ensemble du « patrimoine culturel de l’Église témoigne d’une féconde symbiose de culture et de foi. Il constitue une ressource permanente pour une éducation culturelle et catéchétique, qui unit la vérité de la foi à l’authentique beauté de l’art (Cf. Sacrosanctum Concilium, n. 122-127). Fruits d’une communauté chrétienne qui a vécu et vit intensément sa foi dans l’espérance et la charité, ces biens cultuels et culturels de l’Église sont à même d’inspirer l’existence humaine et chrétienne à l’aube du IIIe millénaire » (Pour une Pastorale de la Culture, n. 17).


Source : Église d’Arras, n. 17, 19 octobre 2001, 12-14.






En estos días se ha decidido en Italia de cerrar una escuela para permitir a un grupo de estudiantes musulmanes festejar el inicio del Ramadán; otra escuela quitó el crucifijo de las aulas para no ofender a los pequeños musulmanes. Estos gestos de tolerancia, han sido calificados por medios de comunicación en Italia como de “una sola dirección”, pues muchos países musulmanes no reconocen ciertos derechos fundamentales de los creyentes en otras religiones.

“Es seguramente una paradoja, no puedo negarlo –reconoce Francesco D’Agostino, profesor de Filosofía del Derecho en la Universidad de Tor Vergata (Roma) y presidente de la Asociación de Juristas católicos de Italia–, pero depende del hecho de que vivimos una transición: estamos en el vado entre una época en la que el multiculturalismo era desconocido y un período en el que se ha convertido en una realidad cotidiana”.

La tolerancia es un deber específico de los cristianos. Debemos usar una fuerte paciencia histórica. También Dios ha sido paciente con su pueblo... No debemos ceder en materia de los derechos humanos fundamentales, los valores de la coexistencia civil, pues son irrenunciables en su carácter laico, pues fundan toda sociedad humana.


Cf. Zenit, 14-11-2001.





Il 6 novembre 2001, papa Giovanni Paolo II ha ricevuto il Cardinale Adam Maida, Arcivescovo di Detroit e i Dirigenti e Sostenitori del “Pope John Paul II Cultural Center” di Washington, D.C., per la prima volta in visita in Vaticano dopo l’inaugurazione del Centro, inaugurazione avvenuta nel marzo 2001 sul Campus dell’Università Cattolica d’America.

Il Santo Padre ha ringraziato il Cardinale Maida per il rapporto presentato sul progresso della “missione” del Centro “di far avanzare il dialogo della Chiesa parallelamente alle varie forme nelle quali si esprime l’umana ricerca universale della verità e del suo significato”.

Nel Suo indirizzo di saluto Giovanni Paolo II ha sottolineato “la necessità di edificare una cultura del dialogo” in un mondo contraddistinto da un crescente pluralismo culturale e religioso, ricordando che “l’impegno della Chiesa nel dialogo si ispira, in definitiva, alla convinzione che il messaggio evangelico ha il potere di illuminare tutte le culture, essendo fermento salvifico di unità e di pace per tutta l’umanità”.


Cf.: Vatican Information Service, n. 189, 7-11-2001.





Cardinal William Keeler of Baltimore (USA) addressed the annual meeting of the Missouri Catholic Conference in Jefferson City on 22 September 2001. He spoke of the Holy Father’s reflection on the events of the Jubilee Year, the apostolic letter Novo Millennio Ineunte. He also mentioned some of the Pope’s symbolic actions, and his words at the consistory of cardinals in May 2001, particularly what he had said about globalisation and bioethics. Cardinal Keeler wanted to speak about bioethics “and about another sign of the times, the impact of the new technology as it intersects with moral issues in the context of the communications media”.

It is not wise to dismiss new technologies or to be blind to “the very real threats some of them pose to human dignity”. Stem-cell research is a case in point. Cells taken from adult bone marrow and umbilical cord blood are already often used with great success. There is a problem only when (embryonic) lives are destroyed. It is up to Catholic researchers to explore methods that involve no destruction of life. In vitro fertilisation is an area where there has been little or no regulation. The Cardinal suggested that there are abuses that may “lead more Americans to appreciate the wisdom of the church’s longstanding concerns about creating human life in the laboratory”, and it may be time to find other ways of helping infertile couples. It is also important to recognise the genuine problems linked to cloning, as well as the loss of perspective about earthly life that comes to light in the euthanasia issue. Here, in particular, it is ironic that the latest technological advances are being used to suppress life rather than enhance it. “It is as if we were trying to show how advanced we are by developing a cure even for incurable disease – the cure being to eliminate the patient”.

The Cardinal wanted to “put in a good word for the Internet”. While it is true that people can abuse others by means of this technology, the technology did not create the abusers; it simply gave them the opportunity. The Internet has provided many people with new opportunities, particularly for learning in remote areas. The ability to exchange information and ideas has made contact among Catholics worldwide "easier and immediate. Today a Catholic anywhere can find out about the Holy See’s activities and documents directly”. There may be positive opportunities to be tapped, even for retired priests and religious “to be present on the Internet to offer guidance to seekers”. But it has to be acknowledged that the Internet has been the way for pornography to invade “the home, the school and the library”. Pornography is “a multibillion dollar industry”; video and DVD cassettes are easier to control than Internet sites, but legislation against Internet pornography in the United States has been resisted on the grounds that it threatened freedom of expression. “At the same time, existing, constitutional obscenity and child pornography laws do apply, and we should seek their enforcement”. People sometimes feel fairly helpless about what is coming into their homes via television, but even here the Cardinal indicated ways of speaking out. Concerted public reaction can sometimes help determine whether broadcasters renew their licences.

Cardinal Keeler spoke of the distorted image of the Catholic Church that press and Internet alike can spread. It is relatively simple to deal positively with the traditional media, despite occasional hostility, which should not be allowed to damage what is an essential working relationship. Internet, on the other hand, is very difficult. Clearly, “the most effective response is to have a site oneself which is effective in attracting visitors and keeping them interested”. The Cardinal’s final thought was on globalisation. It can be a negative phenomenon, as when concern for profits can reduce things to “the lowest common level”, or when a few “come to control the sources of information across the globe”. But it can be a very positive thing, “if it gives us a sense of being one human family”.


Source: Origins, October 11, 2001. Vol. 31: No. 18, pp. 306-310.





Sur proposition de Catherine Tasca, Ministre de la Culture et de la Communication, le conseil des ministres du 26 septembre 2001 a adopté le projet de décret modifiant le décret du 29 janvier 1993 relatif aux biens culturels soumis à certaines restrictions de circulation.

Ce texte achève la réforme initiée par la loi du 10 juillet 2000 relative à la protection des trésors nationaux. En effet, la loi du 31 décembre 1992 sur la circulation des biens culturels ne permettait pas une protection efficace du patrimoine culturel : sur les 95 trésors nationaux interdits d’exportation au cours des neuf dernières années, seuls 37 œuvres ont pu rejoindre les musées et les bibliothèques. La loi du 10 juillet 2000 facilite l’acquisition par l’État des trésors nationaux, biens culturels d’une importance majeure pour le patrimoine artistique et historique de la France.

Le nouveau texte prévoit le conditions d’acquisition de ces biens par l’État et améliore la délivrance des certificats d’exportation des biens culturels, ainsi que le fonctionnement de la commission consultative des trésors nationaux, dont la composition est modifiée en assurant une représentation paritaire du marché de l’art et des ministères chargés de la culture et de la recherche. L’estimation, au prix du marché international de l’art, des trésors nationaux, est confiée à des experts choisis par le propriétaire et par l’État. En cas d’opinions divergentes sur la valeur du trésor national, un troisième expert est désigné d’un commun accord ou, à défaut, par le juge. L’avis de ce dernier expert déterminera le montant de la proposition d’achat faite par l’État au propriétaire du trésor national. L’entrée en vigueur de ce décret permettra à la France de disposer d’une réglementation efficace, de nature à assurer le maintien en France des trésors nationaux et, pour une grande part de ceux-ci, leur intégration dans les collections des musées nationaux ou des collectivités territoriales.


Source: Tower net. E-mail news, Club des partenaires – Partners club n. 5, 15-20 octobre 2001. Institut Européen des Itinéraires Culturels, European Institute of Cultural Routes, Tour Jacob – Plateau du Rham, L-2427 Luxembourg. Tél. : 00352.241.250, Fax : 00352.241.176,, ou bien



LOGOS: A journal of Catholic Thought and Culture


The Summer 2001 edition of Logos has a very rich selection of articles. There is a piece by Sister Agnes Cunningham which she says was occasioned by the definition of Saint Thérèse of Lisieux as a doctor of the Church. It reflects on four wellsprings that flow into “a vast ocean”: Christianity, Tradition, mysticism and the phenomenon of renewal. The uniqueness of Catholic Christianity is to be found in the Incarnation, which emphasises the uniqueness of Christ but draws each of us into an exciting communion. Tradition embraces Irenaeus as the Father of Tradition and Newman and Chesterton, who saw the paradoxical unity of continuity and discontinuity as essential to the genuine development of doctrine. When it comes to renewal, it is necessary to hold together the fact that the Church has to re-present the Gospel to every nation and culture and time, with the constant need to re-focus on “the heart of the Gospel, that is, on the Person and teaching of Jesus Christ, Incarnate Word of God, Redeemer and Savior”. The mysticism in this article centres on Bérulle and Madame Acarie (his cousin Barbe Avrillot) and her spiritual circle, a remarkable list of names. Bérulle and la belle Acarie brought to France the Carmelites whom Thérèse of Lisieux was later to join. For the author, the real Thérèse is to be found in the Martin family home and in the Norman character. What does she offer? She can teach us how the Incarnation makes Christ, Christianity and each of us unique. This opens the door to a deeper experience of the life of the Trinity. This has much to say in contrast to styles of life based on domination. She “can also lead us into the heart of the Gospel” and tell us a great deal about the Father in a way that could “be a source of healing and peace for many people, in surprising and unexpected ways”.

Another contribution is a review of Papal Sin by Gary Wills, in which Paul J. Griffiths rightly demonstrates the manifold weaknesses of a book that has enjoyed extraordinary success and publicity. It is particularly useful on the We Remember document, linking it up with a Jewish response entitled Dabru Emet.What Else Could I Do? The Self-Definition of Consequentialists” is an ingenious and humorous exercise by Gary M. Atkinson in testing a notoriously problematic ethical theory. It seems that Mary Midgley and others have suggested that, in some current research debates, “the self-conception of science and scientists… verges on the religious”. In “On Embryos, Clones, and Catholic Wisdom”, Paul J. Wojda focuses on what underlies the experience of Catholics celebrating the Eucharist in contrast to the “impersonalist, dualist and necessitarian” assumptions governing certain research enterprises. There are pieces on Shakespeare, Muriel Spark and Denise Levertov, as well as an article by George Weigel on how Catholicism and democracy fit together in the eyes of Pope John Paul II; the hinge for understanding this seems to be the Holy Father’s insistence on the genuinely universal character of human rights in his address to the United Nations in 1995, taken by Weigel as a valid rejection of any accusation of ‘cultural imperialism’. Robert W. Schaffern provides an informative account of ‘gendered’ images of the Church in the thought of Pope Innocent III. The article offers evidence of mixing of (often stereotypical) male and female imagery, and reveals, amongst other things, the use as early as the time of bishop Hincmar of Rheims (845-852) of the term Mater et Magistra applied to the Church.


Source: Logos, Summer 2001, Volume 4:3.




Decálogo del experto biblista, Carlo Buzzetti


El cine sigue inspirándose en la Biblia para ofrecer obras de resultados dispares, que suelen ser emitidas por los canales de televisión con motivo de la Navidad o Pascua.

La relación entre el cine y la Escritura no es fácil. No siempre es fácil saber cuáles son las películas, basadas en relatos bíblicos, que pueden ser un buen instrumento para acercarse a la Palabra de Dios y cuáles en cambio deforman y traicionan el mensaje revelado.

Carlo Buzzetti, experto biblista, ofrece en el diario italiano Avvenire un decálogo con pistas interesantes para poder hacer una elección acertada.

1. La relación Biblia-cine es de tipo jerárquico-prioritario. El cine está al servicio de la Biblia y no al contrario. Las dos realidades no son nunca intercambiables.

2. La relación Biblia-cine es de tipo circular. Por una parte, la Biblia proporciona argumentos al cine. Por otra, el cine puede ayudar a captar en los textos bíblicos algunos aspectos que antes permanecían escondidos.

3. La relación no es nunca de tipo sustitutivo. Ya que Biblia y cine no son realidades equivalentes, ningún filme puede nunca ponerse en lugar de la Biblia. Aunque es verdad que, para muchos, la Biblia casi no existe si no existe el apoyo de un filme.

4. Una película bíblica es buena si invita a acudir a la Biblia. Un producto cinematográfico puede venir antes de la Biblia o después de ella. Primero, para provocar el deseo de leer la Biblia. Después, para comentar un texto bíblico ya conocido y para invitar a releerlo.

5. Un filme bíblico es como un cuadro. En la relación con la Biblia, es bueno si ayuda a descubrir algunos matices que antes no habían sido percibidos por los lectores de la Biblia.

6. Un filme bíblico es bueno si ayuda a los destinatarios a comprender mejor también algo de la existencia humana en general. Por tanto, si ayuda incluso a los mismos espectadores a comprender mejor algún aspecto de su vida.

7. Sobre todo, es problemática y errada la perspectiva del enfrentamiento radical y recíprocamente exclusivo que dice: “o la Biblia o el cine”. En cambio, cada intento de amistad puede nacer sólo en la perspectiva de la convivencia y de la colaboración.

8. La relación Biblia-cine se sitúa dentro de una cadena más amplia de relaciones y de jerarquías. Desde la Palabra, pasando por la palabra proclamada, repetida, escrita, la predicación, la catequesis, la escuela, el arte y el cine. Pero hay que subrayar que ninguna palabra profética puede sustituir a la Palabra de Dios, de la misma manera que ninguna obra de arte, teatro o cine puede agotar o sustituir las traducciones escritas de la Biblia.

9. Un buen filme bíblico está al servicio de la Biblia. Pero la superioridad de la Biblia no es de tipo exclusivo-dictatorial. Para ser comunicada continuamente la Biblia pide siempre ser traducida al papel y a cualquier otro medio audiovisual.

10. Toda traducción no es buena en sí, sino “buena para...”. Quien defiende la legitimidad de las traducciones cinematográficas no puede sostener que todo filme bíblico sea bueno. Hay que evaluar uno a uno. Hay que verificar si un filme tiene alguna cualidad-ventaja en relación a un fin, es decir, si el filme es “fiel”, si es “bueno para...” comprender la Biblia.

Carlo Buzzetti concluye al exponer este decálogo: “He visto que cuando una discusión sobre un filme bíblico está precedida y guiada por este decálogo resulta más sólida, más seria y más serena”.


Cf. Zenit, 16-11-2001.





Mille anni or sono, gli Ungheresi aderirono alla civiltà cristiana europea. L’adozione del cristianesimo comportò un cambiamento del modo di vivere in cui ebbe un ruolo decisivo la Chiesa, la quale ha dato al popolo ungherese la fede ed i personaggi di rilievo della sua storia, ma anche la scienza e l’educazione.

Per commemorare il millenario del battesimo degli Ungheresi è stata inaugurata, il 9 ottobre 2001, nei Musei Vaticani, la mostra Hungariae Christianae Millennium – Mille anni di cristianesimo in Ungheria. Poiché l’arte rispecchia le caratteristiche peculiari della propria cultura, le opere esposte portano l’impronta specifica della cultura ungherese, comunicando qualcosa dell’anima magiara, modellata da un millennio ininterrotto di cultura cristiana.

È stato il Presidente dell’Ungheria, Ferenc Mádl, a guidare la numerosa delegazione arrivata per l’inaugurazione della mostra, e della quale hanno facevano parte i Ministri dell’Eredità Culturale, della Giustizia, della Famiglia e della Sanità ungheresi, il Presidente dell’Accademia delle Scienze e altri membri del Parlamento e del Governo.

La Chiesa cattolica ungherese è stata rappresentata dal Cardinale László Paskai, Arcivescovo di Esztergom-Budapest, da S.E.R. Mons. István Seregély e S.E.R. Mons. András Veres, rispettivamente Presidente e Segretario della Conferenza Episcopale Ungherese, nonché dall’Arcivescovo Balázs Bábel e dai Vescovi Nándor Bosák, Endre Gyulay, Szilárd Keresztes e Gáspár Ladocsi.

Da parte della Santa Sede erano presenti i Cardinali Angelo Sodano, Bernardin Gantin, Joachim Meisner, Carlo Furno e Luigi Poggi, l’Arcivescovo Jean-Louis Tauran, l’Arcivescovo ungherese Csaba Ternyák, Segretario della Congregazione per il Clero, nonché numerosi Officiali e Addetti.

“Roma est patria omnium” ha detto, nel suo discorso inaugurale, il Direttore dei Musei Vaticani, Francesco Buranelli, citando l’iscrizione sulla tomba del canonico transilvano János Lászay seppellito nella Chiesa di Santo Stefano Rotondo a Roma, chiesa nazionale degli Ungheresi.

Il Cardinale Angelo Sodano ha sottolineato la felice coincidenza del Grande Giubileo del 2000 e del Millennio del battesimo dei Ungheresi, ricordando che il primo re d’Ungheria, Santo Stefano, fu incoronato con la corona ricevuta dal Papa Silvestro II. Ripercorrendo i mille anni della storia cristiana d’Ungheria, si può scoprire l’anima del popolo ungherese la quale ha arricchito la storia e la cultura europea.

Il Cardinale Primate d’Ungheria, László Paskai, ha parlato dei rapporti stretti tra la Santa Sede e l’Ungheria, iniziati con re Santo Stefano, che fece edificare non solo una chiesa vicino alla tomba di San Pietro, ma anche una casa di accoglienza per i pellegrini ungheresi – la Casa di Santo Stefano. La serie dei discorsi è stata chiusa dal Presidente Ferenc Mádl.

Il Coro della Scuola Musicale Zoltán Kodály di Budapest, diretto dal Maestro Ferenc Sapszon, ha animato col suo canto la cerimonia di apertura. In repertorio c’era la “Preghiera di Fatima”, dello stesso Maestro, ispirata da una grande fede, proprio nell’Anniversario dell’atto di affidamento del mondo a Maria da parte di Sua Santità Giovanni Paolo II.

La mostra, aperta fino all’Epifania, è stata allestita con grande cura da Mons. Pál Cséfalvay, Direttore del Museo Cristiano del Palazzo Primaziale di Esztergom, e dallo storico István Zombori.

I Musei Vaticani offrono ormai una serie di mostre nazionali, fra cui quelle sull’Ucraina nel 1988, sulla Romania nel 1997, sull’Armenia nel 1999 e adesso, nella nuova sala presso il nuovo ingresso dei Musei Vaticani, quella ungherese.

Il prezioso catalogo di 412 pagine, stampato per la mostra, in lingua ungherese, inglese e italiana, può essere ammirato anche “virtualmente”, almeno in parte, sul sito trilingue della mostra:





This organisation provides an “on line” database of art resources. The database is managed by qualified artists, who provide practical information to other artists on funding, scholarships, competitions, galleries seeking proposals and even jobs. It is meant to help people find their way in what has become a complex and competitive world. One project currently under way is to seek funding for art studios, workshops and third-level educational institutions, to enable artists from underprivileged backgrounds to compete for international prizes and gain exposure. Global Art Information can be contacted only via the Internet:





À propos d’une enquête touchant 800 millions d’Européens, Jan Kerkhofs, Professeur émérite de l’Université catholique de Leuven en Belgique, a fait paraître quelques réflexions particulièrement significatives, dont nous donnons ici un bref aperçu.

Dès 1978, un groupe de spécialistes a commencé l’organisation d’études sur les valeurs des Européens. La dernière enquête représentative d’environ 800 millions de personnes, couvre aussi la Russie, l’Ukraine et la Turquie.


Égalité et liberté

Les deux valeurs fondamentales, celles de la liberté et de l’égalité, sont affirmées de façon très inégale selon les pays. Pour l’ensemble de l’Europe, la liberté (53%) dépasse l’égalité (41%). Dans quelques pays seulement, comme l’Italie, la Grèce, la Hongrie et la Croatie, l’égalité reste première. Les Européens partagent d’autres opinions, comme, par exemple, la préférence prêtée aux différents domaines de la vie : partout la famille est, de loin, considérée comme ce qui est le plus important. Elle est suivie par le travail, les amis, les loisirs, la religion et la politique. En 2000 comme en 1990, le travail obtient en Europe centrale une cote plus élevée qu’en Europe orientale et Europe occidentale, Grande-Bretagne et Allemagne exceptées. Pour la religion, la diversification est grande. Une minorité la considère comme importante dans les pays nordiques, l’Islande exceptée. En Europe du Sud, Italie, Portugal, Grèce et Malte, la religion obtient une majorité de suffrages, contrairement à l’Espagne. Une majorité en faveur de la religion en Autriche, en Slovaquie et en Roumanie, est contrebalancée par une minorité en Allemagne, en République tchèque et en Bulgarie.


Accentuation de l’individualisme

Dans tous les domaines mentionnés, nous constatons une accentuation progressive de l’individualisme, particulièrement en tout ce qui touche à l’éthique personnelle, où surtout les catégories d’âge nées après la seconde guerre mondiale font preuve d’un choix personnel. Partout l’éthique de situation prévaut. Au contraire, pour l’éthique concernant des questions d’ordre public, la grande majorité refuse le laxisme, mais ceci ne traduit pas automatiquement un grand sens civique. À coté d’institutions auxquelles on donne beaucoup d’importance, comme l’enseignement, l’armée, l’Église, la police, seule une minorité avoue se fier aux institutions qui se rapportent directement au politique, comme le parlement, la justice, l’administration, l’union européenne et les Nations Unies. Les Européens sont conscients des problèmes de l’environnement, mais leurs contradictions sont patentes. Une large majorité déclare que les gouvernements doivent s’occuper de l’environnement, à condition que cela ne coûte rien aux contribuables. De nouveau, ce sont les pays nordiques qui sont les plus sensibles à la question de l’environnement. L’Europe connaît-elle un système de valeurs communes ? Partout se révèle une très grande diversité. On ne peut pas dire non plus que l’Europe est divisée selon les vieilles démarcations religieuses : les différences entre les pays sociologiquement catholiques, protestants ou orthodoxes ne sont pas significatives. À l’intérieur de ces groupes, l’opinion n’est nullement homogène, mais cependant, tous font l’expérience d’un processus accéléré de sécularisation, contrairement à ce que l’on constate aux États-Unis.


Tolérance et démocratie

L’Europe devient progressivement multiculturelle et multireligieuse. La tolérance semble augmenter de sondage en sondage, au point d’être considérée par les parents comme une des qualités les plus importantes à transmettre aux enfants à la maison. Elle est surtout soulignée par les jeunes et ceux qui ont joui d’une meilleure formation.

Dans le domaine politique, la majorité se plaint des déficits de la démocratie, mais quasiment tous préfèrent la démocratie à n’importe quel autre système de gouvernement. Plusieurs pays de l’Est gardent la nostalgie d’un homme fort, qui ne s’occupe pas d’un parlement ou d’élections, notamment l’Ukraine, la Roumanie, la Lettonie et la Lituanie. En Russie, 50% de la population est favorable au gouvernement d’un homme fort.


L’Europe en hausse

L’Union européenne avec 43% et surtout les Nations Unies avec 51% obtiennent davantage de confiance que le propre parlement national avec 35%. Les jeunes et les mieux formés soutiennent l’Europe, mais les différences restent grandes entre les pays : en Italie et au Portugal, 68% font confiance à l’Union européenne, contre 26% en Grande-Bretagne, au Danemark et en Russie. La grande majorité des Européens considère toujours son propre village ou sa ville, avec 49%, comme le lieu par excellence de l’enracinement territorial. Pour 27% c’est le pays, pour 13% la région. Le monde entier obtient 6%, avec un maximum de 15% en Russie et en Ukraine, et l’Europe 3%, avec un maximum de 13% au Luxembourg.





En el marco de la 31ª reunión de la Conferencia General de la UNESCO, la comisión IV aprobó el proyecto de Declaración sobre la diversidad cultural. El documento es el resumen de las seis últimas etapas, las más importantes, de una reflexión que comenzó con la primera Mesa Redonda de los Ministros de Cultura de los países miembros, organizada al margen del orden del día de la 30ª reunión de la Conferencia General.

Además de la Declaración sobre la diversidad cultural, el texto presentado al Director General para ser sometido a la aprobación de la Conferencia General, contiene un anexo con las orientaciones principales de un plan de acción para la aplicación de la misma.

La UNESCO, desde su fundación ha querido salvaguardar y promover la diversidad cultural, y en diversas oportunidades ha reafirmado, tal diversidad, como un bien común esencial de la humanidad.

El 2 de Noviembre de 1999, los Ministros de Cultura en la Mesa Redonda antes mencionada, y apoyándose en la necesidad de preservar la dignidad humana, afirmaron su voluntad de defender y promover la diversidad cultural frente a la globalización. Ante esta petición la Reunión del Comité de Expertos sobre el fortalecimiento del papel de la UNESCO en la promoción de la diversidad cultural en el contexto de la mundialización, recomendó al Director General que contemplase la posibilidad de una Declaración sobre el asunto. Tal Declaración debería contener algunos principios políticos determinantes, que deberían ser sometidos a la aprobación de la Conferencia General por tratarse de un texto de grande alcance y solemnidad.

El Consejo Ejecutivo adoptó como propia la propuesta del Comité de Expertos e invitó al Director General a determinar los elementos preliminares en función de un marco de referencia de alcance solemne y moral. En una segunda Mesa Redonda con Ministros de Cultura, éstos pidieron que el texto estableciera puntos de referencia para facilitar la elaboración de políticas culturales nacionales y su armonización con las normas del derecho internacional. Diversas entidades interesadas en el tema, tales como el Consejo de Europa, la Comisión Europea, la Organización Internacional de la Francofonía, la Red Internacional sobre Políticas Culturales, entre otras, manifestaron su interés en favor de la idea. En la 161ª reunión del Consejo Ejecutivo se subrayó la importancia de la interacción entre diversidad cultural, derechos humanos y derechos culturales, así como la necesidad de poner de relieve los vínculos entre diversidad cultural y desarrollo sostenible. Se consideró que los problemas de identidad, pluralismo lingüístico y creatividad formaban parte de dicha reflexión. Un grupo especial de trabajo fue encargado de ayudar a la secretaría general a preparar el proyecto con el fin de presentarla a la 31ª reunión de la Conferencia General.

La Declaración tiene como telón de fondo algunos presupuestos, de los cuales merecen ser destacados los siguientes:

– La amplia difusión de la cultura y la educación de la humanidad para la justicia, la libertad y la paz son indispensables a la dignidad del hombre y constituyen un deber sagrado que todas las naciones han de cumplir con un espíritu de responsabilidad y mutua ayuda.

– La cultura debe ser considerada como el conjunto de rasgos distintivos espirituales y materiales, intelectuales y afectivos que caracterizan a una sociedad o a un grupo social y que abarca, además de las artes y las letras, los modos de vida, las maneras de vivir juntos, los sistemas de valores, las tradiciones y las creencias.

– La cultura se encuentra en el centro de los debates contemporáneos sobre la identidad, la cohesión social y el desarrollo de una economía fundada en el saber.

– La tolerancia, el diálogo y la cooperación, en un clima de confianza y de respeto mutuos, crean vínculos indisolubles entre diversidad cultural y paz.

– La necesidad de aspirar a una mayor solidaridad internacional fundada en el reconocimiento de la diversidad cultural y en la conciencia de la unidad del género humano.


La Declaración está compuesta por 12 artículos y articulada en cuatro núcleos, a saber:

Identidad, diversidad y pluralismo. La diversidad cultural viene definida como patrimonio común de la humanidad. El pluralismo cultural viene presentado como respuesta política al hecho de la diversidad cultural. La diversidad cultural es uno de los motores del desarrollo de los pueblos.

2º Diversidad cultural y derechos humanos. Los derechos humanos aparecen como garantes de la diversidad cultural, que a su vez es inseparable del respeto de la dignidad de la persona humana. Los derechos culturales son un marco propicio de la diversidad cultural, que debe ser accesible a todos, garantizando la libre circulación de las ideas mediante la palabra y la imagen, de tal manera que todas las culturas puedan expresarse y darse a conocer.

Diversidad cultural y creatividad. La creatividad tiene su origen en las tradiciones culturales y se desarrolla plenamente cuando entra en contacto con otras culturas. De ahí que el patrimonio en todas sus formas debe ser preservado, valorizado y trasmitido a las generaciones futuras como testimonio de la experiencia y de las aspiraciones humanas. Los bienes y servicios culturales no deben ser considerados como mercancías y bienes de consumo semejantes a los demás. Las políticas culturales deben crear condiciones propicias para la producción y difusión de bienes y servicios culturales diversificados, gracias a industrias culturales que dispongan de medios para desarrollarse en los planos local y mundial.

Diversidad cultural y solidaridad internacional. Es necesario para poner en práctica todo lo anterior reforzar la cooperación y lo solidaridad internacionales destinadas a permitir que los países en desarrollo y en transición creen industrias culturales viables y competitivas. Desde la misma perspectiva, no será posible el respeto a la diversidad cultural sin fortalecer la función primordial de las políticas públicas, en asociación con el sector privado y la sociedad civil, para la promoción de un desarrollo humano sostenible. El último artículo de la Declaración pone de manifiesto la función de la UNESCO y su contribución para que la declaración pueda tener efectos positivos.

La Declaración sobre la diversidad cultural es un paso importante y necesario en las relaciones culturales internacionales, que saludamos con gozo y que esperamos produzca frutos en favor de la convivencia pacífica de los pueblos de las más diversas culturas.





The Centre for the Study of Communication and Culture, which publishes this journal, has moved from Missouri to California. Volume 20, an enlarged single issue for the 2000/2001 year, is a digest of the major themes in Trends over the last twenty years. The editor, W. E. Biernatzki s.j., recalls that “the motive for the Centre’s establishment was frankly religious: to help religious communicators and decision makers understand the contemporary world of communication in which they work and make their decisions. Nevertheless, this religious goal has proven to be perfectly compatible with the needs of secular communicators and especially of scholars, regardless of their religion, who want concise summaries of research findings in the field”. This should encourage American readers, who are typically sensitive to the boundaries between religious and non-religious sectors of society, and others in the Catholic Church who wonder if publishing really does further the work of evangelising cultures and inculturating the Gospel. High quality work clearly does.

The work done in seven areas of interest is reviewed in this special issue.

1. Media Ethics. The prominence of the topic has increased in the last twenty years, “seemingly in inverse proportion to the practice of normative restraint in the media themselves”. Contributors acknowledge John F. Kavanaugh’s person-based ethics, but also recognise the apparently intractable problem of reconciling the need for local and global elements in the complex world of contemporary communications. There may be hope in the “discourse ethics” put forward by Jürgen Habermas.

2. Electronic Communications. Major problems surface quickly: the potentially “confusing and debilitating, rather than informative” character of floods of information; the “unintentional but pervasive forms of cultural imperialism” that can be discerned in computer procedures patterned on American or Western European culture; the potential for serious misrepresentation on the Internet; the exploitation of people’s weaknesses through easy electronic shopping and pornographic web sites. Research has shown the negative effects of Internet and other communications technology on family life, but also their positive effects on education. However, the “community” created by the Internet clearly goes beyond classic definitions.

3. Globalisation: the article admits that a satisfactory definition of the term is elusive. The cultural effects of globalisation are dramatic, as are the ethical problems it brings. There is special mention of the effect globalisation has had in China, traditionally exposed to foreign cultures by Kong-Tai, “the inflow of Western and Japanese influences through Hong Kong and Taiwan”. Even with the decline in Communist ideology, there has been a steady stream of nationalist and xenophobic literature. Ownership of and access to media conclude this article.

4. Children. The review has dedicated five issues to this topic. Cinema, television and the Internet are reckoned to have far greater influence on developing children than home or school, which have both changed dramatically in modern urban societies. Researchers and the general public concentrate on “the media’s role in encouraging violence” and sex. Curiously, parents fear overt pornography less than “the general culture of sexual promiscuity – usually subtle and carried mainly by dialogue – that pervades broadcast and cable television, as well as motion pictures”. Other concerns are the secularity of the media, with a trivialisation of sacred issues, and the bizarre fact that children watching MTV programmes see an astonishing sixty events per minute. The relatively few research projects on sex in the mass media focus on gender, exploitation of women etc., rather than confronting issues that have much deeper and longer-lasting effects on young people. The article gives possible reasons for this. An amusing admission is that the neglect of contemporary popular music may be explained by the age gap between consumers and the editors of the review, although some good research has evidently been done!

5. Media Education: reference is made to the idea that “advertising today has replaced the function traditionally filled by art and religion in that it determines the basic pattern of our world view”. The article considers benefits of education for all ages through the media, as well as the “Ethics of Visual Truth”, and the development of critical autonomy in education.

6. Religion. Trends has never confined itself to religion, or even to Catholicism or Christianity, but has found research on religion and communications to be poor in quality and quantity. The power of symbols has exercised some minds. “In earlier times, religious symbolism enjoyed a distinct advantage over secular symbolism; but in the electronic age the balance is reversed”. Television’s subtle or hidden rituals, and attendance at sporting events, seem to take over the space religion once occupied in people’s lives. There are contrasting views of communications within the Catholic Church, and the UK’s BBC has huge problems in broadcasting religious programmes. Relationships between religious communities and a heavily secular media are problematic. The difficulty journalists experience in trying to understand religion in their own culture shows how complex religion on the world scene is. “Full-time specialists are needed to deal adequately with religious reporting”.

7. Culture. Cultural and social anthropology’s focus has shifted from isolated groups to social groups that interact more with each other. Thus cultural boundaries are less clear than they used to be. The article emphasises written sources, since “so much of the survival of culture in civilized societies depends on writing”. Changes in publishing technology have affected books, newspapers and even journalistic style, giving birth ultimately to “public opinion”. The article questions just what “quality” is in communications media. Some weight is given to the difference between intracultural, cross-cultural and intercultural research, the latter developing hand in hand with semiotics and semiology. Indeed, the virtue of  “mindfulness of cultural differences… can create a positive mindset and go a long way towards avoiding misunderstandings and conflict”.


Source: Communication Research Trends, c/o Department of Communication, Santa Clara University, 500 El Camino Real, Santa Clara, CA 95053 U.S.A.