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Chapter 12


After these agreements were made, Lysias returned to the king, and the Jews went about their farming.


1 But some of the local governors, Timothy and Apollonius, son of Gennaeus, as also Hieronymus and Demophon, to say nothing of Nicanor, the commander of the Cyprians, would not allow them to live in peace.


Some people of Joppa also committed this outrage: they invited the Jews who lived among them, together with their wives and children, to embark on boats which they had provided. There was no hint of enmity toward them;


this was done by public vote of the city. When the Jews, not suspecting treachery and wishing to live on friendly terms, accepted the invitation, the people of Joppa took them out to sea and drowned at least two hundred of them.


As soon as Judas heard of the barbarous deed perpetrated against his countrymen, he summoned his men;


and after calling upon God, the just judge, he marched against the murderers of his kinsmen. In a night attack he set the harbor on fire, burnt the boats, and put to the sword those who had taken refuge there.


When the gates of the town were shut, he withdrew, intending to come back later and wipe out the entire population of Joppa.


On hearing that the men of Jamnia planned to give like treatment to the Jews who lived among them,


he attacked the Jamnian populace by night, setting fire to the harbor and the fleet, so that the glow of the flames was visible as far as Jerusalem, thirty miles away.


2 When the Jews had gone about a mile from there in the campaign against Timothy, they were attacked by Arabs numbering at least five thousand foot soldiers, and five hundred horsemen.


After a hard fight, Judas and his companions, with God's help, were victorious. The defeated nomads begged Judas to make friends with them and promised to supply the Jews with cattle and to help them in every other way.


Realizing that they could indeed be useful in many respects, Judas agreed to make peace with them. After the pledge of friendship had been exchanged, the Arabs withdrew to their tents.


He also attacked a certain city called Caspin, fortified with earthworks and ramparts and inhabited by a mixed population of Gentiles.


Relying on the strength of their walls and their supply of provisions, the besieged treated Judas and his men with contempt, insulting them and even uttering blasphemies and profanity.


But Judas and his men invoked the aid of the great Sovereign of the world, who, in the day of Joshua, overthrew Jericho without battering-ram or siege machine; then they furiously stormed the ramparts.


Capturing the city by the will of God, they inflicted such indescribable slaughter on it that the adjacent pool, which was about a quarter of a mile wide, seemed to be filled with the blood that flowed into it.


3 When they had gone on some ninety miles, they reached Charax, where there were certain Jews known as Toubiani.


But they did not find Timothy in that region, for he had already departed from there without having done anything except to leave behind in one place a very strong garrison.


But Dositheus and Sosipater, two of Maccabeus' captains, marched out and destroyed the force of more than ten thousand men that Timothy had left in the stronghold.


Meanwhile, Maccabeus divided his army into cohorts, with a commander over each cohort, and went in pursuit of Timothy, who had a force of a hundred and twenty thousand foot soldiers and twenty-five hundred horsemen.


When Timothy learned of the approach of Judas, he sent on ahead of him the women and children, as well as the baggage, to a place called Karnion, which was hard to besiege and even hard to reach because of the difficult terrain of that region.


But when Judas' first cohort appeared, the enemy was overwhelmed with fear and terror at the manifestation of the All-seeing. Scattering in every direction, they rushed away in such headlong flight that in many cases they wounded one another, pierced by the swords of their own men.


Judas pressed the pursuit vigorously, putting the sinners to the sword and destroying as many as thirty thousand men.


Timothy himself fell into the hands of the men under Dositheus and Sosipater; but with great cunning, he asked them to spare his life and let him go, because he had in his power the parents and relatives of many of them, and could make these suffer.


When he had fully confirmed his solemn pledge to restore them unharmed, they let him go for the sake of saving their brethren.


4 Judas then marched to Karnion and the shrine of Atargatis, where he killed twenty-five thousand people.


After the defeat and destruction of these, he moved his army to Ephron, a fortified city inhabited by people of many nationalities. Robust young men took up their posts in defense of the walls, from which they fought valiantly; inside were large supplies of machines and missiles.


But the Jews, invoking the Sovereign who forcibly shatters the might of his enemies, got possession of the city and slaughtered twenty-five thousand of the people in it.


5 Then they set out from there and hastened on to Scythopolis, seventy-five miles from Jerusalem.


But when the Jews who lived there testified to the good will shown by the Scythopolitans and to their kind treatment even in times of adversity,


Judas and his men thanked them and exhorted them to be well disposed to their race in the future also. Finally they arrived in Jerusalem, shortly before the feast of Weeks.


After this feast called Pentecost, they lost no time in marching against Gorgias, governor of Idumea,


who opposed them with three thousand foot soldiers and four hundred horsemen.


In the ensuing battle, a few of the Jews were slain.


6 A man called Dositheus, a powerful horseman and one of Bacenor's men, caught hold of Gorgias, grasped his military cloak and dragged him along by main strength, intending to capture the vile wretch alive, when a Thracian horseman attacked Dositheus and cut off his arm at the shoulder. Then Gorgias fled to Marisa.


After Esdris and his men had been fighting for a long time and were weary, Judas called upon the Lord to show himself their ally and leader in the battle.


Then, raising a battle cry in his ancestral language, and with songs, he charged Gorgias' men when they were not expecting it and put them to flight.


Judas rallied his army and went to the city of Adullam. As the week was ending, they purified themselves according to custom and kept the sabbath there.


On the following day, since the task had now become urgent, Judas and his men went to gather up the bodies of the slain and bury them with their kinsmen in their ancestral tombs.


But under the tunic of each of the dead they found amulets sacred to the idols of Jamnia, which the law forbids the Jews to wear. So it was clear to all that this was why these men had been slain.


They all therefore praised the ways of the Lord, the just judge who brings to light the things that are hidden.


7 Turning to supplication, they prayed that the sinful deed might be fully blotted out. The noble Judas warned the soldiers to keep themselves free from sin, for they had seen with their own eyes what had happened because of the sin of those who had fallen.


He then took up a collection among all his soldiers, amounting to two thousand silver drachmas, which he sent to Jerusalem to provide for an expiatory sacrifice. In doing this he acted in a very excellent and noble way, inasmuch as he had the resurrection of the dead in view;


for if he were not expecting the fallen to rise again, it would have been useless and foolish to pray for them in death.


But if he did this with a view to the splendid reward that awaits those who had gone to rest in godliness, it was a holy and pious thought.


Thus he made atonement for the dead that they might be freed from this sin.



1 [2] Apollonius, son of Gennaeus: not the Apollonius who was the son of Menestheus ( 2 Macc 4:21). Nicanor: probably distinct from the Nicanor of 2 Macc 14:2.

2 [10] From there: not from the aforesaid Jamnia ( 2 Macc 12:8-9) or Joppa ( 2 Macc 12:3-7), but from a place in Transjordan; 2 Macc 12:10-26 parallel the account given in 1 Macc 5:9-13, 24-54 of Judas' campaign in northern Transjordan.

3 [17] Certain Jews known as Toubiani: because they lived "in the land of Tob" ( 1 Macc 5:13).

4 [26] Atargatis: a Syrian goddess, represented by the body of a fish.

5 [29] Scythopolis: the Greek name of the city of Beth-shan; cf 1 Macc 5:52.

6 [35] One of Bacenor's men: certain ancient witnesses to the text have "one of the Toubiani"; cf 2 Macc 12:17.

7 [42-45] This is the earliest statement of the doctrine that prayers ( 2 Macc 12:42) and sacrifices ( 2 Macc 12:43) for the dead are efficacious. The statement is made here, however, only for the purpose of proving that Judas believed in the resurrection of the just ( 2 Macc 7:9, 14, 23, 36). That is, he believed that expiation could be made for certain sins of otherwise good men-soldiers who had given their lives for God's cause. Thus, they could share in the resurrection. His belief was similar to, but not quite the same as, the Catholic doctrine of purgatory.

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