PONTIFICAL COUNCIL FOR SOCIAL COMMUNICATIONS
PORNOGRAPHY AND VIOLENCE
IN THE COMMUNICATIONS MEDIA:
A PASTORAL RESPONSE
1. There has been a worldwide revolution in the perception of
moral values in recent years, involving profound changes in the way people think
and act. The communications media have played and continue to play a major role
in this process of individual and social change as they introduce and reflect
new attitudes and life-styles.1
2. Some of this change has been for the better. Today, as Pope
John Paul II recently noted, "The first positive note is the full awareness
among large numbers of men and women of their own dignity and of that of every
human being... At the same time, in a world divided and beset by every type of
conflict, the conviction is growing of a radical interdependence and
consequently of the need for a solidarity which will take up interdependence and
transfer it to the moral plane".2 The communications media
have contributed much to these changes.
3. Many changes, however, have been for the worse. Along with
old abuses, new violations of human dignity and rights and of Christian values
and ideals have occurred. Here, too, the media bear part of the responsibility.
4. The communications media are involved because, as the Second
Vatican Council stated, if it is true that "they bring valuable assistance to
the human race", it is equally certain "that individuals can use these means (of
communication) in a manner contrary to the commandments of the Creator and can
convert them into instruments of evil".3
5. Among the alarming developments of these years has been the
widespread increase of pornography and wanton violence in the media. Books and
magazines, recordings, the cinema, the theatre, television, videocassettes,
advertising displays and even telecommunications frequently offer a
representation of violent behaviour or of permissiveness in sexual activity that
reaches the point of being openly pornographic and morally offensive.
6. As reflections of the dark side of a human nature marred by
sin, pornography and the exaltation of violence are age-old realities of the
human condition. In the past quarter century, however, they have taken on new
dimensions and have become serious social problems. At a time of widespread and
unfortunate confusion about moral norms, the communications media have made
pornography and violence accessible to a vastly expanded audience, including
young people and even children, and a problem which at one time was confined
mainly to wealthy countries has now begun, via the communications media, to
corrupt moral values in developing nations.
7. Thus, the communications media which can be such effective
instruments of unity and understanding can also sometimes be the vehicles of a
deformed outlook on life, on the family, on religion and on morality - an
outlook that does not respect the true dignity and destiny of the human person.4
In particular, parents in many areas of the world have expressed understandable
concern about the films, videocassettes and television programs their children
can see, about the records their children can hear and about the publications
their children can read. They rightly do not want to see the moral ideals
inculcated in the home undermined by objectionable materials all too easily
accessible in all too many places - often through the communications media.
8. We wish here to describe the more serious effects of
pornography and violence on individuals and society, to indicate some of the
principal causes of the problem as it exists today and to point to remedial
steps which need to be taken by professional communicators, by parents, by
educators, by youth, by the general public, by public authorities and by
churches, religious bodies and groups in the private sector.
EFFECTS OF PORNOGRAPHY AND VIOLENCE
9. Ordinary experience confirmed by studies conducted around the
world has recognized the evil effects of pornography and violence in the media.5
Pornography in the media is understood as a violation, through the use of
audiovisual techniques, of the right to privacy of the human body in its male or
female nature, a violation which reduces the human person and human body to an
anonymous object of misuse for the purpose of gratifying concupiscence; violence
in the media may be understood - especially in this context - as a presentation
designed to appeal to base human instincts of actions contrary to the dignity of
the person and depicting intense physical force exercised in a deeply offensive
and often passionate manner. Specialists may disagree among themselves about how
and to what degree particular individuals and groups are affected by these
phenomena, but the broad outlines of the problem are stark, clear and
10. While no one can consider himself or herself immune to the
corrupting effects of pornography and violence or safe from injury at the hands
of those acting under their influence, the young and the immature are especially
vulnerable and the most likely to be victimized. Pornography and sadistic
violence debase sexuality, corrode human relationships, exploit individuals -
especially women and young people, undermine marriage and family life, foster
anti-social behaviour and weaken the moral fibre of society itself.
11. Thus, one of the clear effects of pornography is sin.
Willing participation in the production or dissemination of these noxious
products can only be judged a serious moral evil. Likewise, production and
dissemination of these materials could not continue if there were not a market
for them, so those who use such materials not only do moral harm to themselves
but contribute to the continuation of a nefarious trade.
12. Frequent exposure to violence in the media can be confusing
to children, who may not be able to distinguish readily between fantasy and
reality. At a later stage, violence in the media can condition impressionable
persons, especially those who are young, to regard this as normal and acceptable
behaviour, suitable for imitation.
13. It has even been said that there can be a psychological link
between pornography and sadistic violence, and some pornography is itself
overtly violent in theme and content. Those who view or read such material run
the risk of carrying over such attitudes and behaviour into their own
relationships and can come to lack reverence and respect for others as precious
children of God and as brothers and sisters in the same human family. Such a
link between pornography and sadistic violence has particular implications for
those suffering from certain forms of mental illness.
14. Even so called "soft core" pornography can have a
progressively desensitizing effect, gradually rendering individuals morally numb
and personally insensitive to the rights and dignity of others. Exposure to
pornography can also be - like exposure to narcotics - habit-forming and can
lead individuals to seek increasingly "hard core" and perverse material. The
likelihood of anti-social behaviour can grow as this process continues.
15. Pornography can foster unhealthy preoccupations in fantasy
and behaviour. It can interfere with personal moral growth and the development
of healthy and mature relationships, especially in marriage and family life,
where mutual trust and openness and personal moral integrity in thought and in
action are so important.
16. Indeed, pornography can militate against the family
character of true human sexual expression. The more sexual activity is
considered as a continuing frenzied search for personal gratification rather
than as an expression of enduring love in marriage, the more pornography can be
considered as a factor contributing to the undermining of wholesome family life.
17. In the worst cases, pornography can act as an inciting or
reinforcing agent, a kind of accomplice, in the behaviour of dangerous sex
offenders - child molesters, rapists and killers.
18. A fundamental message of pornography and violence is
disdain, the consideration of others as objects rather than as persons. Thus,
pornography and violence can eat away at tenderness and compassion and can
foster insensitivity and even brutality.
CAUSE OF THE PROBLEM
19. A fundamental reason for the spread of pornography and
violence in the media would seem to be a pervasive moral permissiveness, rooted
in the search for personal gratification at any cost. Associated with this is a
kind of despairing moral emptiness, which makes sense pleasure the only
happiness human beings can attain.
20. A number of more immediate causes also contribute to the
escalation of pornography and violence in the media. Among them are these:
Pornography is a lucrative industry. Some segments of
the communications industry have tragically succumbed to the temptation of
exploiting human weakness, including the weakness of young and
impressionable minds, in order to make money from productions of pornography
and violence. In some societies, the pornography industry is so lucrative
that it has been linked to organized crime.
- bad libertarian arguments: Freedom of expression is said by some to
require the toleration of pornography, even at the cost of the moral welfare
of the young and of the right of all members of society to privacy and to an
atmosphere of public decency. Some even falsely say that the best way to
combat pornography is to legalize it. Faulty libertarian arguments are
sometimes espoused by small groups who do not represent the moral values of
the majority and who fail to recognize that every right carries with it a
corresponding responsibility. The right to freedom of expression does not
exist in a vacuum. Public responsibility for promoting the welfare of the
young, for fostering respect for women and for the protection of privacy and
public decency indicates that liberty cannot be equated with license.
- the lack of carefully prepared laws or the ineffective enforcement of laws
which already exist to protect the common good, especially the morals of the
- confusion and apathy on the part of many persons, including members of the
religious community, who erroneously consider themselves either as
unaffected by pornography or violence in the media or as powerless to
contribute to a solution to the problem.
RESPONSES TO THE PROBLEM
21. The spread of pornography and violence in the communications
media does injury to individuals and society and creates an urgent problem
requiring realistic responses from many persons and groups. The legitimate
rights to free expression and free exchange of information must be respected,
but so must the rights of individuals, families and society itself to privacy,
public decency and the protection of basic values.
22. We shall speak here of seven sectors with obligations in
this matter: professional communicators, parents, educators, youth, the general
public, public authorities, and the Church and religious groups.
23. PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATORS.
It would be unfair to suggest that all communications media and all
communicators are involved in this noxious trafficking. Many communicators
retain high personal and professional standards and seek to fulfill their
responsibilities with a strong commitment to moral norms and the common good.
Their efforts - especially the efforts of those who seek to provide wholesome
family entertainment - deserve recognition and encouragement. We urge these
communicators to join in formulating and applying ethical codes for the
communications media and for advertising which respect the common good and
promote sound human development. Such codes are particularly necessary for
television, which makes it possible for images to enter directly into the home
where children may often be alone and unsupervised. Effective self-control is
always the best control, and self-regulation by the media can be the first and
best line of defense against those who would corrupt the media and society
itself by seeking to profit from pornography and violence. We also urge
communicators to help make better known through the media the steps which can be
taken to stem the tide of pornography and the exaltation of violence in society.
24. PARENTS. Parents must
re-double their efforts to provide for the sound moral formation of children and
youth. This includes inculcation of healthy attitudes toward human sexuality
based on respect for the dignity of every person as a child of God, on the
virtue of chastity and on the practice of self-discipline. A well-ordered family
life in which the parents are obviously faithful and committed to each other and
to their children provides the best school for the formation of sound moral
values. Today, too, children and young people must be taught how to be
discriminating, informed consumers of media. Parents, in particular, influence
their children through the example they give in this matter; parental passivity
or self-indulgence in regard to media teach false and damaging lessons to the
young. Of particular importance to young people is the example their parents
give of true love and tenderness in marriage and of readiness to discuss matters
of concern to their children in a loving and gentle manner. It must not be
forgotten that, in matters of human formation, "more is obtained by reasoned
explanation than by prohibition".6
25. EDUCATORS. The chief
collaborators with parents in the moral formation of young people must be
educators. Schools and other educational programs should support and inculcate
the social and ethical values that promote the unity and health of families and
of society itself. Of particular value are programs in media education to
develop in young people a critical attitude and properly formed skills of
discernment in using television, radio and other media, so that they might know
how to resist manipulation and how to avoid merely passive listening and viewing
habits. It is also important that schools emphasize the need for respect for the
human person, the value of family life and the importance of personal moral
26. YOUTH. Young people
themselves can help to stem the tide of pornography and violence in the media by
responding positively to the initiatives of their parents and educators and by
taking responsibility for their own moral decisions in the choice of
27. THE PUBLIC. The general
public also needs to make its voice heard. Individually and collectively,
concerned citizens - including young people - should make their views known to
producers, commercial interests and public authorities. There is an urgent need
for continuing dialogue between communicators and representatives of the public
so that those involved in the communications media may learn more about the real
needs and interests of those whom they serve.
28. PUBLIC AUTHORITIES.
Legislators, administrators, law enforcement officials and jurists should
recognize and respond to the problem of pornography and violence in the media.
Sound laws must be enacted where they are lacking, weak laws must be
strengthened, and existing laws must be enforced. Because the production and
distribution of pornographic material has international implications, action
should also be taken on the regional, continental and world levels to control
this insidious traffic. Those who have already taken such initiatives deserve
support and encouragement in their efforts.7 Law and
the agents of law have as their most sacred duty the protection of the common
good, particularly as it pertains to youth and the most vulnerable members of
the community. We have already noted some of the harmful effects of pornography
and violence, and we can conclude that the common good has indeed been harmed
and continues to be harmed where such materials are produced, exhibited and
distributed without responsible restriction or regulation. Public authorities
must feel obliged to take prompt action to deal with this problem where it
already exists and to prevent it from arising in places where it may not yet
have become an urgent matter.
29. THE CHURCH AND RELIGIOUS GROUPS.
For the Church, the first responsibility is the constant, clear teaching of the
faith and, therefore, of objective moral truth, including the truth about sexual
morality. In an era of permissiveness and moral confusion, this requires that
the Church be a prophetic voice and, often, a sign of contradiction. The
so-called "ethic" of immediate personal gratification is fundamentally opposed
to integral human growth and fulfillment. Education for family life and indeed
for responsible life in society requires formation in chastity and
self-discipline. By contrast, pornography and wanton violence can blind
individuals to the divine image in the human person, can weaken marriage and
family life and can do serious harm to individuals and to society itself.
Wherever possible, the Church must join with other churches, denominations and
religious groups in teaching and fostering this message. It must also make the
best possible use of its own institutions and personnel to give education and
formation concerning the media of social communications and their proper role in
individual and social life. Special attention should be given to assisting
parents in their efforts. Thus, media education belongs in Catholic
schools and other educational programs, in seminaries,8
in formation programs of religious and secular institutes, in the continuing
formation of priests and in parish programs for youth and adults. Priests and
Religious in pastoral and educational work should themselves be discrimating
consumers of media who give good example in what they read and view.
30. Finally, a merely censorious attitude
on the part of the Church toward the media is neither sufficient nor
appropriate. Instead, the Church should be engaged in continued conversation
with responsibile communicators to encourage them in their work and to provide
assistance where it is needed or requested. Catholic communicators and their
professional organizations - with their special insights and experience - can
play a key role in these continuing conversations.
31. As they conscientiously evaluate productions and
publications in accordance with clear and consistent moral principles, Catholic
critics and communications organizations can offer valuable assistance both to
communications professionals and to families. In fact, the guidelines on the
communications media present in existing Church documents, including recent
reflections by many bishops on the problems of pornography and violence, deserve
extended study and systematic application.
32. This document is intended to address the widely expressed
concerns of families and of the shepherds of the Church and to invite even more
general reflection of an ethical and practical nature on the problem of
pornography and violence in the communications media and to encourage all to
follow the injunction of St. Paul: "Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome
evil with good" (Rom 12, 21).
Pontifical Council for Social Communications.
Vatican City, May 7, 1989
| JOHN P. FOLEY, President
||Mons. PIERFRANCO PASTORE, Secretary
||1 Communio et progressio, 22.
||Sollicitudo rei socialis, 26.
||Inter mirifica, 2a.
||Familiaris consortio, 76; cf. JOHN PAUL PP. Il,
Message for World Communications Day, May 1, 1980.
||Among those can be cited: 1) The Longford Report on Pornography
(original title Pornography: The Longford Report), Ricerche-Mursia,
Milan (Italy) 1978; 2) Final Report of the Attorney General's Commission
Rutledge Hill Press, Nashville, Tennessee (U.S.A.), 1986; 3)
ISPES (Istituto di Studi Politici, Economici e Sociali), I e II Rapporto
sulla Pornografia in Italia, Rome, (Italy), 1986 and 1988.
||Communio et progressio, 67.
||The EEC (European Economic Community), the Council of Europe
and UNESCO, among others, have taken action in this sense.
||Cf. CONGREGATION FOR CATHOLIC EDUCATION, Guide to the
Training of Future Priests concerning the Instruments of Social
Communication, Vatican City, 1986.