DECREE ON ECUMENISM
1. The restoration of unity among all Christians is one of the principal
concerns of the Second Vatican Council. Christ the Lord founded one Church and
one Church only. However, many Christian communions present themselves to men as
the true inheritors of Jesus Christ; all indeed profess to be followers of the
Lord but differ in mind and go their different ways, as if Christ Himself were
divided.(1) Such division openly contradicts the will of Christ, scandalizes the
world, and damages the holy cause of preaching the Gospel to every creature.
But the Lord of Ages wisely and patiently follows out the plan of grace on
our behalf, sinners that we are. In recent times more than ever before, He has
been rousing divided Christians to remorse over their divisions and to a longing
for unity. Everywhere large numbers have felt the impulse of this grace, and
among our separated brethren also there increases from day to day the movement,
fostered by the grace of the Holy Spirit, for the restoration of unity among all
Christians. This movement toward unity is called "ecumenical." Those belong to
it who invoke the Triune God and confess Jesus as Lord and Savior, doing this
not merely as individuals but also as corporate bodies. For almost everyone
regards the body in which he has heard the Gospel as his Church and indeed,
God's Church. All however, though in different ways, long for the one visible
Church of God, a Church truly universal and set forth into the world that the
world may be converted to the Gospel and so be saved, to the glory of God.
The Sacred Council gladly notes all this. It has already declared its
teaching on the Church, and now, moved by a desire for the restoration of unity
among all the followers of Christ, it wishes to set before all Catholics the
ways and means by which they too can respond to this grace and to this divine
CATHOLIC PRINCIPLES ON ECUMENISM
2. What has revealed the love of God among us is that the Father has sent
into the world His only-begotten Son, so that, being made man, He might by His
redemption give new life to the entire human race and unify it.(2) Before
offering Himself up as a spotless victim upon the altar, Christ prayed to His
Father for all who believe in Him: "that they all may be one; even as thou,
Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us, so that the
world may believe that thou has sent me".(3) In His Church He instituted the
wonderful sacrament of the Eucharist by which the unity of His Church is both
signified and made a reality. He gave His followers a new commandment to love
one another,(4) and promised the Spirit, their Advocate,(5) who, as Lord and
life-giver, should remain with them forever.
After being lifted up on the cross and glorified, the Lord Jesus poured forth
His Spirit as He had promised, and through the Spirit He has called and gathered
together the people of the New Covenant, who are the Church, into a unity of
faith, hope and charity, as the Apostle teaches us: "There is one body and one
Spirit, just as you were called to the one hope of your calling; one Lord, one
faith, one Baptism".(6) For "all you who have been baptized into Christ have put
on Christ ... for you are all one in Christ Jesus".(7) It is the Holy Spirit,
dwelling in those who believe and pervading and ruling over the Church as a
whole, who brings about that wonderful communion of the faithful. He brings them
into intimate union with Christ, so that He is the principle of the Church's
unity. The distribution of graces and offices is His work too,(8) enriching the
Church of Jesus Christ with different functions "in order to equip the saints
for the work of service, so as to build up the body of Christ".(9)
In order to establish this His holy Church everywhere in the world till the
end of time, Christ entrusted to the College of the Twelve the task of teaching,
ruling and sanctifying.(10) Among their number He selected Peter, and after his
confession of faith determined that on him He would build His Church. Also to
Peter He promised the keys of the kingdom of heaven,(11) and after His
profession of love, entrusted all His sheep to him to be confirmed in faith(12)
and shepherded in perfect unity.(13) Christ Jesus Himself was forever to remain
the chief cornerstone(14) and shepherd of our souls.(15)
Jesus Christ, then, willed that the apostles and their successors - the
bishops with Peter's successor at their head - should preach the Gospel
faithfully, administer the sacraments, and rule the Church in love. It is thus,
under the action of the Holy Spirit, that Christ wills His people to increase,
and He perfects His people's fellowship in unity: in their confessing the one
faith, celebrating divine worship in common, and keeping the fraternal harmony
of the family of God.
The Church, then, is God's only flock; it is like a standard lifted high for
the nations to see it:(16) for it serves all mankind through the Gospel of
peace(17) as it makes its pilgrim way in hope toward the goal of the fatherland
This is the sacred mystery of the unity of the Church, in Christ and through
Christ, the Holy Spirit energizing its various functions. It is a mystery that
finds its highest exemplar and source in the unity of the Persons of the
Trinity: the Father and the Son in the Holy Spirit, one God.
3. Even in the beginnings of this one and only Church of God there arose
certain rifts,(19) which the Apostle strongly condemned.(20) But in subsequent
centuries much more serious dissensions made their appearance and quite large
communities came to be separated from full communion with the Catholic
Church - for which, often enough, men of both sides were to blame. The children
who are born into these Communities and who grow up believing in Christ cannot
be accused of the sin involved in the separation, and the Catholic Church
embraces upon them as brothers, with respect and affection. For men who believe
in Christ and have been truly baptized are in communion with the Catholic Church
even though this communion is imperfect. The differences that exist in varying
degrees between them and the Catholic Church - whether in doctrine and sometimes
in discipline, or concerning the structure of the Church - do indeed create many
obstacles, sometimes serious ones, to full ecclesiastical communion. The
ecumenical movement is striving to overcome these obstacles. But even in spite
of them it remains true that all who have been justified by faith in Baptism are
members of Christ's body,(21) and have a right to be called Christian, and so
are correctly accepted as brothers by the children of the Catholic Church.(22)
Moreover, some and even very many of the significant elements and endowments
which together go to build up and give life to the Church itself, can exist
outside the visible boundaries of the Catholic Church: the written word of God;
the life of grace; faith, hope and charity, with the other interior gifts of the
Holy Spirit, and visible elements too. All of these, which come from Christ and
lead back to Christ, belong by right to the one Church of Christ.
The brethren divided from us also use many liturgical actions of the
Christian religion. These most certainly can truly engender a life of grace in
ways that vary according to the condition of each Church or Community. These
liturgical actions must be regarded as capable of giving access to the community
It follows that the separated Churches(23) and Communities as such, though we
believe them to be deficient in some respects, have been by no means deprived of
significance and importance in the mystery of salvation. For the Spirit of
Christ has not refrained from using them as means of salvation which derive
their efficacy from the very fullness of grace and truth entrusted to the
Nevertheless, our separated brethren, whether considered as individuals or as
Communities and Churches, are not blessed with that unity which Jesus Christ
wished to bestow on all those who through Him were born again into one body, and
with Him quickened to newness of life - that unity which the Holy Scriptures and
the ancient Tradition of the Church proclaim. For it is only through Christ's
Catholic Church, which is "the all-embracing means of salvation," that they can
benefit fully from the means of salvation. We believe that Our Lord entrusted
all the blessings of the New Covenant to the apostolic college alone, of which
Peter is the head, in order to establish the one Body of Christ on earth to
which all should be fully incorporated who belong in any way to the people of
God. This people of God, though still in its members liable to sin, is ever
growing in Christ during its pilgrimage on earth, and is guided by God's gentle
wisdom, according to His hidden designs, until it shall happily arrive at the
fullness of eternal glory in the heavenly Jerusalem.
4. Today, in many parts of the world, under the inspiring grace of the Holy
Spirit, many efforts are being made in prayer, word and action to attain that
fullness of unity which Jesus Christ desires. The Sacred Council exhorts all the
Catholic faithful to recognize the signs of the times and to take an active and
intelligent part in the work of ecumenism.
The term "ecumenical movement" indicates the initiatives and activities
planned and undertaken, according to the various needs of the Church and as
opportunities offer, to promote Christian unity. These are: first, every effort
to avoid expressions, judgments and actions which do not represent the condition
of our separated brethren with truth and fairness and so make mutual relations
with them more difficult; then, "dialogue" between competent experts from
different Churches and Communities. At these meetings, which are organized in a
religious spirit, each explains the teaching of his Communion in greater depth
and brings out clearly its distinctive features. In such dialogue, everyone
gains a truer knowledge and more just appreciation of the teaching and religious
life of both Communions. In addition, the way is prepared for cooperation
between them in the duties for the common good of humanity which are demanded by
every Christian conscience; and, wherever this is allowed, there is prayer in
common. Finally, all are led to examine their own faithfulness to Christ's will
for the Church and accordingly to undertake with vigor the task of renewal and
When such actions are undertaken prudently and patiently by the Catholic
faithful, with the attentive guidance of their bishops, they promote justice and
truth, concord and collaboration, as well as the spirit of brotherly love and
unity. This is the way that, when the obstacles to perfect ecclesiastical
communion have been gradually overcome, all Christians will at last, in a common
celebration of the Eucharist, be gathered into the one and only Church in that
unity which Christ bestowed on His Church from the beginning. We believe that
this unity subsists in the Catholic Church as something she can never lose, and
we hope that it will continue to increase until the end of time.
However, it is evident that, when individuals wish for full Catholic
communion, their preparation and reconciliation is an undertaking which of its
nature is distinct from ecumenical action. But there is no opposition between
the two, since both proceed from the marvelous ways of God.
Catholics, in their ecumenical work, must assuredly be concerned for their
separated brethren, praying for them, keeping them informed about the Church,
making the first approaches toward them. But their primary duty is to make a
careful and honest appraisal of whatever needs to be done or renewed in the
Catholic household itself, in order that its life may bear witness more clearly
and faithfully to the teachings and institutions which have come to it from
Christ through the Apostles.
For although the Catholic Church has been endowed with all divinely revealed
truth and with all means of grace, yet its members fail to live by them with all
the fervor that they should, so that the radiance of the Church's image is less
clear in the eyes of our separated brethren and of the world at large, and the
growth of God's kingdom is delayed. All Catholics must therefore aim at
Christian perfection(24) and, each according to his station, play his part that
the Church may daily be more purified and renewed. For the Church must bear in
her own body the humility and dying of Jesus,(25) against the day when Christ
will present her to Himself in all her glory without spot or wrinkle.(26)
All in the Church must preserve unity in essentials. But let all, according
to the gifts they have received enjoy a proper freedom, in their various forms
of spiritual life and discipline, in their different liturgical rites, and even
in their theological elaborations of revealed truth. In all things let charity
prevail. If they are true to this course of action, they will be giving ever
better expression to the authentic catholicity and apostolicity of the Church.
On the other hand, Catholics must gladly acknowledge and esteem the truly
Christian endowments from our common heritage which are to be found among our
separated brethren. It is right and salutary to recognize the riches of Christ
and virtuous works in the lives of others who are bearing witness to Christ,
sometimes even to the shedding of their blood. For God is always wonderful in
His works and worthy of all praise.
Nor should we forget that anything wrought by the grace of the Holy Spirit in
the hearts of our separated brethren can be a help to our own edification.
Whatever is truly Christian is never contrary to what genuinely belongs to the
faith; indeed, it can always bring a deeper realization of the mystery of Christ
and the Church.
Nevertheless, the divisions among Christians prevent the Church from
attaining the fullness of catholicity proper to her, in those of her sons who,
though attached to her by Baptism, are yet separated from full communion with
her. Furthermore, the Church herself finds it more difficult to express in
actual life her full catholicity in all her bearings.
This Sacred Council is gratified to note that the participation by the
Catholic faithful in ecumenical work is growing daily. It commends this work to
the bishops everywhere in the world to be vigorously stimulated by them and
guided with prudence.
THE PRACTICE OF ECUMENISM
5. The attainment of union is the concern of the whole Church, faithful and
shepherds alike. This concern extends to everyone, according to his talent,
whether it be exercised in his daily Christian life or in his theological and
historical research. This concern itself reveals already to some extent the bond
of brotherhood between all Christians and it helps toward that full and perfect
unity which God in His kindness wills.
6. Every renewal of the Church(27) is essentially grounded in an increase of
fidelity to her own calling. Undoubtedly this is the basis of the movement
Christ summons the Church to continual reformation as she sojourns here on
earth. The Church is always in need of this, in so far as she is an institution
of men here on earth. Thus if, in various times and circumstances, there have
been deficiencies in moral conduct or in church discipline, or even in the way
that church teaching has been formulated - to be carefully distinguished from the
deposit of faith itself - these can and should be set right at the opportune
Church renewal has therefore notable ecumenical importance. Already in
various spheres of the Church's life, this renewal is taking place. The Biblical
and liturgical movements, the preaching of the word of God and catechetics, the
apostolate of the laity, new forms of religious life and the spirituality of
married life, and the Church's social teaching and activity - all these should be
considered as pledges and signs of the future progress of ecumenism.
7. There can be no ecumenism worthy of the name without a change of heart.
For it is from renewal of the inner life of our minds,(28) from self-denial and
an unstinted love that desires of unity take their rise and develop in a mature
way. We should therefore pray to the Holy Spirit for the grace to be genuinely
self-denying, humble, gentle in the service of others, and to have an attitude
of brotherly generosity towards them. St. Paul says: "I, therefore, a prisoner
for the Lord, beg you to lead a life worthy of the calling to which you have
been called, with all humility and meekness, with patience, forbearing one
another in love, eager to maintain the unity of the spirit in the bond of
peace".(29) This exhortation is directed especially to those raised to sacred
Orders precisely that the work of Christ may be continued. He came among us "not
to be served but to serve".(30)
The words of St. John hold good about sins against unity: "If we say we have
not sinned, we make him a liar, and his word is not in us".(31) So we humbly beg
pardon of God and of our separated brethren, just as we forgive them that
trespass against us.
All the faithful should remember that the more effort they make to live
holier lives according to the Gospel, the better will they further Christian
unity and put it into practice. For the closer their union with the Father, the
Word, and the Spirit, the more deeply and easily will they be able to grow in
mutual brotherly love.
8. This change of heart and holiness of life, along with public and private
prayer for the unity of Christians, should be regarded as the soul of the whole
ecumenical movement, and merits the name, "spiritual ecumenism."
It is a recognized custom for Catholics to have frequent recourse to that
prayer for the unity of the Church which the Saviour Himself on the eve of His
death so fervently appealed to His Father: "That they may all be one".(32)
In certain special circumstances, such as the prescribed prayers "for unity,"
and during ecumenical gatherings, it is allowable, indeed desirable that
Catholics should join in prayer with their separated brethren. Such prayers in
common are certainly an effective means of obtaining the grace of unity, and
they are a true expression of the ties which still bind Catholics to their
separated brethren. "For where two or three are gathered together in my name,
there am I in the midst of them".(33)
Yet worship in common (communicatio in sacris) is not to be considered as a
means to be used indiscriminately for the restoration of Christian unity. There
are two main principles governing the practice of such common worship: first,
the bearing witness to the unity of the Church, and second, the sharing in the
means of grace. Witness to the unity of the Church very generally forbids common
worship to Christians, but the grace to be had from it sometimes commends this
practice. The course to be adopted, with due regard to all the circumstances of
time, place, and persons, is to be decided by local episcopal authority, unless
otherwise provided for by the Bishops' Conference according to its statutes, or
by the Holy See.
9. We must get to know the outlook of our separated brethren. To achieve this
purpose, study is of necessity required, and this must be pursued with a sense
of realism and good will. Catholics, who already have a proper grounding, need
to acquire a more adequate understanding of the respective doctrines of our
separated brethren, their history, their spiritual and liturgical life, their
religious psychology and general background. Most valuable for this purpose are
meetings of the two sides - especially for discussion of theological
problems - where each can deal with the other on an equal footing - provided that
those who take part in them are truly competent and have the approval of the
bishops. From such dialogue will emerge still more clearly what the situation of
the Catholic Church really is. In this way too the outlook of our separated
brethren will be better understood, and our own belief more aptly explained.
10. Sacred theology and other branches of knowledge, especially of a
historical nature, must be taught with due regard for the ecumenical point of
view, so that they may correspond more exactly with the facts.
It is most important that future shepherds and priests should have mastered a
theology that has been carefully worked out in this way and not polemically,
especially with regard to those aspects which concern the relations of separated
brethren with the Catholic Church.
This importance is the greater because the instruction and spiritual
formation of the faithful and of religious depends so largely on the formation
which their priests have received.
Moreover, Catholics engaged in missionary work in the same territories as
other Christians ought to know, particularly in these times, the problems and
the benefits in their apostolate which derive from the ecumenical movement.
11. The way and method in which the Catholic faith is expressed should never
become an obstacle to dialogue with our brethren. It is, of course, essential
that the doctrine should be clearly presented in its entirety. Nothing is so
foreign to the spirit of ecumenism as a false irenicism, in which the purity of
Catholic doctrine suffers loss and its genuine and certain meaning is clouded.
At the same time, the Catholic faith must be explained more profoundly and
precisely, in such a way and in such terms as our separated brethren can also
Moreover, in ecumenical dialogue, Catholic theologians standing fast by the
teaching of the Church and investigating the divine mysteries with the separated
brethren must proceed with love for the truth, with charity, and with humility.
When comparing doctrines with one another, they should remember that in Catholic
doctrine there exists a "hierarchy" of truths, since they vary in their relation
to the fundamental Christian faith. Thus the way will be opened by which through
fraternal rivalry all will be stirred to a deeper understanding and a clearer
presentation of the unfathomable riches of Christ.(34)
12. Before the whole world let all Christians confess their faith in the
triune God, one and three in the incarnate Son of God, our Redeemer and Lord.
United in their efforts, and with mutual respect, let them bear witness to our
common hope which does not play us false. In these days when cooperation in
social matters is so widespread, all men without exception are called to work
together, with much greater reason all those who believe in God, but most of
all, all Christians in that they bear the name of Christ. Cooperation among
Christians vividly expresses the relationship which in fact already unites them,
and it sets in clearer relief the features of Christ the Servant. This
cooperation, which has already begun in many countries, should be developed more
and more, particularly in regions where a social and technical evolution is
taking place be it in a just evaluation of the dignity of the human person, the
establishment of the blessings of peace, the application of Gospel principles to
social life, the advancement of the arts and sciences in a truly Christian
spirit, or also in the use of various remedies to relieve the afflictions of our
times such as famine and natural disasters, illiteracy and poverty, housing
shortage and the unequal distribution of wealth. All believers in Christ can,
through this cooperation, be led to acquire a better knowledge and appreciation
of one another, and so pave the way to Christian unity.
CHURCHES AND ECCLESIAL COMMUNITIES SEPARATED FROM THE ROMAN APOSTOLIC SEE
13. We now turn our attention to the two chief types of division as they
affect the seamless robe of Christ.
The first divisions occurred in the East, when the dogmatic formulae of the
Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon were challenged, and later when ecclesiastical
communion between the Eastern Patriarchates and the Roman See was dissolved.
Other divisions arose more than four centuries later in the West, stemming
from the events which are usually referred to as "The Reformation." As a result,
many Communions, national or confessional, were separated from the Roman See.
Among those in which Catholic traditions and institutions in part continue to
exist, the Anglican Communion occupies a special place.
These various divisions differ greatly from one another not only by reason of
their origin, place and time, but especially in the nature and seriousness of
questions bearing on faith and the structure of the Church. Therefore, without
minimizing the differences between the various Christian bodies, and without
overlooking the bonds between them which exist in spite of divisions, this holy
Council decides to propose the following considerations for prudent ecumenical
I. The Special Consideration of the Eastern Churches
14. For many centuries the Church of the East and that of the West each
followed their separate ways though linked in a brotherly union of faith and
sacramental life; the Roman See by common consent acted as guide when
disagreements arose between them over matters of faith or discipline. Among
other matters of great importance, it is a pleasure for this Council to remind
everyone that there flourish in the East many particular or local Churches,
among which the Patriarchal Churches hold first place, and of these not a few
pride themselves in tracing their origins back to the apostles themselves. Hence
a matter of primary concern and care among the Easterns, in their local
churches, has been, and still is, to preserve the family ties of common faith
and charity which ought to exist between sister Churches.
Similarly it must not be forgotten that from the beginning the Churches of
the East have had a treasury from which the Western Church has drawn
extensively - in liturgical practice, spiritual tradition, and law. Nor must we
undervalue the fact that it was the ecumenical councils held in the East that
defined the basic dogmas of the Christian faith, on the Trinity, on the Word of
God Who took flesh of the Virgin Mary. To preserve this faith these Churches
have suffered and still suffer much.
However, the heritage handed down by the apostles was received with
differences of form and manner, so that from the earliest times of the Church it
was explained variously in different places, owing to diversities of genius and
conditions of life. All this, quite apart from external causes, prepared the way
for decisions arising also from a lack of charity and mutual understanding.
For this reason the Holy Council urges all, but especially those who intend
to devote themselves to the restoration of full communion hoped for between the
Churches of the East and the Catholic Church, to give due consideration to this
special feature of the origin and growth of the Eastern Churches, and to the
character of the relations which obtained between them and the Roman See before
separation. They must take full account of all these factors and, where this is
done, it will greatly contribute to the dialogue that is looked for.
15. Everyone also knows with what great love the Christians of the East
celebrate the sacred liturgy, especially the eucharistic celebration, source of
the Church's life and pledge of future glory, in which the faithful, united with
their bishop, have access to God the Father through the Son, the Word made
flesh, Who suffered and has been glorified, and so, in the outpouring of the
Holy Spirit, they enter into communion with the most holy Trinity, being made
"sharers of the divine nature".(35) Hence, through the celebration of the Holy
Eucharist in each of these churches, the Church of God is built up and grows in
stature(36) and through concelebration, their communion with one another is made
In this liturgical worship, the Christians of the East pay high tribute, in
beautiful hymns of praise, to Mary ever Virgin, whom the ecumenical Council of
Ephesus solemnly proclaimed to be the holy Mother of God, so that Christ might
be acknowledged as being truly Son of God and Son of Man, according to the
Scriptures. Many also are the saints whose praise they sing, among them the
Fathers of the universal Church.
These Churches, although separated from us, possess true sacraments, above all by apostolic succession, the priesthood and the Eucharist, whereby
they are linked with us in closest intimacy. Therefore some worship in common
(communicatio in sacris), given suitable circumstances and the approval of
Church authority, is not only possible but to be encouraged.
Moreover, in the East are found the riches of those spiritual traditions
which are given expression especially in monastic life. There from the glorious
times of the holy Fathers, monastic spirituality flourished which, then later
flowed over into the Western world, and there provided the source from which
Latin monastic life took its rise and has drawn fresh vigor ever since.
Catholics therefore are earnestly recommended to avail themselves of the
spiritual riches of the Eastern Fathers which lift up the whole man to the
contemplation of the divine.
The very rich liturgical and spiritual heritage of the Eastern Churches
should be known, venerated, preserved and cherished by all. They must recognize
that this is of supreme importance for the faithful preservation of the fullness
of Christian tradition, and for bringing about reconciliation between Eastern
and Western Christians.
16. Already from the earliest times the Eastern Churches followed their own
forms of ecclesiastical law and custom, which were sanctioned by the approval of
the Fathers of the Church, of synods, and even of ecumenical councils. Far from
being an obstacle to the Church's unity, a certain diversity of customs and
observances only adds to her splendor, and is of great help in carrying out her
mission, as has already been stated. To remove, then, all shadow of doubt, this
holy Council solemnly declares that the Churches of the East, while remembering
the necessary unity of the whole Church, have the power to govern themselves
according to the disciplines proper to them, since these are better suited to
the character of their faithful, and more for the good of their souls. The
perfect observance of this traditional principle not always indeed carried out
in practice, is one of the essential prerequisites for any restoration of unity.
17. What has just been said about the lawful variety that can exist in the
Church must also be taken to apply to the differences in theological expression
of doctrine. In the study of revelation East and West have followed different
methods, and have developed differently their understanding and confession of
God's truth. It is hardly surprising, then, if from time to time one tradition
has come nearer to a full appreciation of some aspects of a mystery of
revelation than the other, or has expressed it to better advantage. In such
cases, these various theological expressions are to be considered often as
mutually complementary rather than conflicting. Where the authentic theological
traditions of the Eastern Church are concerned, we must recognize the admirable
way in which they have their roots in Holy Scripture, and how they are nurtured
and given expression in the life of the liturgy. They derive their strength too
from the living tradition of the apostles and from the works of the Fathers and
spiritual writers of the Eastern Churches. Thus they promote the right ordering
of Christian life and, indeed, pave the way to a full vision of Christian truth.
All this heritage of spirituality and liturgy, of discipline and theology, in
its various traditions, this holy synod declares to belong to the full Catholic
and apostolic character of the Church. We thank God that many Eastern children
of the Catholic Church, who preserve this heritage, and wish to express it more
faithfully and completely in their lives, are already living in full communion
with their brethren who follow the tradition of the West.
18. After taking all these factors into consideration, this Sacred Council
solemnly repeats the declaration of previous Councils and Roman Pontiffs, that
for the restoration or the maintenance of unity and communion it is necessary
"to impose no burden beyond what is essential".(37) It is the Council's urgent
desire that, in the various organizations and living activities of the Church,
every effort should be made toward the gradual realization of this unity,
especially by prayer, and by fraternal dialogue on points of doctrine and the
more pressing pastoral problems of our time. Similarly, the Council commends to
the shepherds and faithful of the Catholic Church to develop closer relations
with those who are no longer living in the East but are far from home, so that
friendly collaboration with them may increase, in the spirit of love, to the
exclusion of all feeling of rivalry or strife. If this cause is wholeheartedly
promoted, the Council hopes that the barrier dividing the Eastern Church and
Western Church will be removed, and that at last there may be but the one
dwelling, firmly established on Christ Jesus, the cornerstone, who will make
II. Separated Churches and Ecclesial Communities in the West
19. In the great upheaval which began in the West toward the end of the
Middle Ages, and in later times too, Churches and ecclesial Communities came to
be separated from the Apostolic See of Rome. Yet they have retained a
particularly close affinity with the Catholic Church as a result of the long
centuries in which all Christendom lived together in ecclesiastical communion.
However, since these Churches and ecclesial Communities, on account of their
different origins, and different teachings in matters of doctrine on the
spiritual life, vary considerably not only with us, but also among themselves,
the task of describing them at all adequately is extremely difficult; and we
have no intention of making such an attempt here.
Although the ecumenical movement and the desire for peace with the Catholic
Church have not yet taken hold everywhere, it is our hope that ecumenical
feeling and mutual esteem may gradually increase among all men.
It must however be admitted that in these Churches and ecclesial Communities
there exist important differences from the Catholic Church, not only of a
historical, sociological, psychological and cultural character, but especially
in the interpretation of revealed truth. To make easier the ecumenical dialogue
in spite of these differences, we wish to set down some considerations which
can, and indeed should, serve as a basis and encouragement for such dialogue.
20. Our thoughts turn first to those Christians who make open confession of
Jesus Christ as God and Lord and as the sole Mediator between God and men, to
the glory of the one God, Father, Son and Holy Spirit. We are aware indeed that
there exist considerable divergences from the doctrine of the Catholic Church
concerning Christ Himself, the Word of God made flesh, the work of redemption,
and consequently, concerning the mystery and ministry of the Church, and the
role of Mary in the plan of salvation. But we rejoice to see that our separated
brethren look to Christ as the source and center of Church unity. Their longing
for union with Christ inspires them to seek an ever closer unity, and also to
bear witness to their faith among the peoples of the earth.
21. A love and reverence of Sacred Scripture which might be described as
devotion, leads our brethren to a constant meditative study of the sacred text.
For the Gospel "is the power of God for salvation to every one who has faith, to
the Jew first and then to the Greek".(39)
While invoking the Holy Spirit, they seek in these very Scriptures God as it
were speaking to them in Christ, Whom the prophets foretold, Who is the Word of
God made flesh for us. They contemplate in the Scriptures the life of Christ and
what the Divine Master taught and did for our salvation, especially the
mysteries of His death and resurrection.
But while the Christians who are separated from us hold the divine authority
of the Sacred Books, they differ from ours - some in one way, some in
another - regarding the relationship between Scripture and the Church. For,
according to Catholic belief, the authentic teaching authority of the Church has
a special place in the interpretation and preaching of the written word of God.
But Sacred Scriptures provide for the work of dialogue an instrument of the
highest value in the mighty hand of God for the attainment of that unity which
the Saviour holds out to all.
22. Whenever the Sacrament of Baptism is duly administered as Our Lord
instituted it, and is received with the right dispositions, a person is truly
incorporated into the crucified and glorified Christ, and reborn to a sharing of
the divine life, as the Apostle says: "You were buried together with Him in
Baptism, and in Him also rose again - through faith in the working of God, who
raised Him from the dead".(40)
Baptism therefore establishes a sacramental bond of unity which links all who
have been reborn by it. But of itself Baptism is only a beginning, an
inauguration wholly directed toward the fullness of life in Christ. Baptism,
therefore, envisages a complete profession of faith, complete incorporation in
the system of salvation such as Christ willed it to be, and finally complete
ingrafting in eucharistic communion.
Though the ecclesial Communities which are separated from us lack the
fullness of unity with us flowing from Baptism, and though we believe they have
not retained the proper reality of the eucharistic mystery in its fullness,
especially because of the absence of the sacrament of Orders, nevertheless when
they commemorate His death and resurrection in the Lord's Supper, they profess
that it signifies life in communion with Christ and look forward to His coming
in glory. Therefore the teaching concerning the Lord's Supper, the other
sacraments, worship, the ministry of the Church, must be the subject of the
23. The daily Christian life of these brethren is nourished by their faith in
Christ and strengthened by the grace of Baptism and by hearing the word of God.
This shows itself in their private prayer, their meditation on the Bible, in
their Christian family life, and in the worship of a community gathered together
to praise God. Moreover, their form of worship sometimes displays notable
features of the liturgy which they shared with us of old.
Their faith in Christ bears fruit in praise and thanksgiving for the
blessings received from the hands of God. Among them, too, is a strong sense of
justice and a true charity toward their neighbor. This active faith has been
responsible for many organizations for the relief of spiritual and material
distress, the furtherance of the education of youth, the improvement of the
social conditions of life, and the promotion of peace throughout the world.
While it is true that many Christians understand the moral teaching of the
Gospel differently from Catholics, and do not accept the same solutions to the
more difficult problems of modern society, nevertheless they share our desire to
stand by the words of Christ as the source of Christian virtue, and to obey the
command of the Apostle: "And whatever you do, in word or in work, do all in the
name of the Lord Jesus Christ, giving thanks to God the Father through Him".(41)
For that reason an ecumenical dialogue might start with discussion of the
application of the Gospel to moral conduct.
24. Now that we have briefly set out the conditions for ecumenical action and
the principles by which it is to be directed, we look with confidence to the
future. This Sacred Council exhorts the faithful to refrain from superficiality
and imprudent zeal, which can hinder real progress toward unity. Their
ecumenical action must be fully and sincerely Catholic, that is to say, faithful
to the truth which we have received from the apostles and Fathers of the Church,
in harmony with the faith which the Catholic Church has always professed, and at
the same time directed toward that fullness to which Our Lord wills His Body to
grow in the course of time.
It is the urgent wish of this Holy Council that the measures undertaken by
the sons of the Catholic Church should develop in conjunction with those of our
separated brethren so that no obstacle be put in the ways of divine Providence
and no preconceived judgments impair the future inspirations of the Holy Spirit.
The Council moreover professes its awareness that human powers and capacities
cannot achieve this holy objective - the reconciling of all Christians in the
unity of the one and only Church of Christ. It is because of this that the
Council rests all its hope on the prayer of Christ for the Church, on our
Father's love for us, and on the power of the Holy Spirit." And hope does not
disappoint, because God's love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy
Spirit, who has been given to us".(42)
Each and all these matters which are set forth in this Decree have been
favorably voted on by the Fathers of the Council. And We, by the apostolic
authority given Us by Christ and in union with the Fathers, approve, decree and
establish them in the Holy Spirit and command that they be promulgated for the
glory of God.
Given in Rome at St. Peter's, November 21, 1964
1. Cf. 1 Cor. 1, 13.
2. Cf. 1 Jn. 4, 9; Col. 1, 18-20; Jn. 11, S2.
3. Jn. 17, 21.
4. Cf. Jn. 13, 34.
5. Cf. Jn. 16, 7.
6. Eph. 4, 4-5.
7. Gal. 3, 27-28.
8. Cf. 1 Cor. 12, 4-11.
9. Eph. 4, 12.
10. Cf. Mt. 28, 18-20, collato Jn. 20 21-23.
11. Cf. Mt. 16, 18, collato Mt. 18, 18.
12. Cf. Lc. 22, 32.
13. Cf. Jn. 21, 15-18.
14. Cf. Eph. 2, 20.
15. Cf. 1 Petr. 2, 2S; CONC. VATICANUM 1, Sess. IV (1870), Constitutio Pastor
Aeternus: Collac 7, 482 a.
16. Cf. Is. 11, 10-12.
17. Cf. Eph. 2, 17-18, collato Mc. 16, 15.
18. Cf. 1 Petr. 1, 3-9.
19. Cf. 1 Cor. 11, 18-19; Gal. 1, 6-9; 1 Jn. 2, 18-19.
20. Cf. 1 Cor. 1, 11 sqq; 11, 22.
21. Cf. CONC. FLORENTINUM, Sess. VIII (1439), Decretum Exultate Deo: Mansi
31, 1055 A.
22. Cf. S. AUGUSTINUS, In Ps. 32, Enarr. 11, 29: PL 36, 299
23. Cf. CONC. LATERANENSE IV (1215) Constitutio IV: Mansi 22, 990; CONC.
LUGDUNENSE II (1274), Professio fidei Michaelis Palaeologi: Mansi 24, 71 E;
CONC. FLORENTINUM, Sess. VI (1439), Definitio Laetentur caeli: Mansi 31, 1026 E.
24. Cf. Iac. 1, 4; Rom. 12, 1-2.
25. Cf. 2 Cor. 4, 10, Phil. 2, 5-8
26. Cf. Eph. 5, 27.
27. Cf. CONC. LATERANSE V, Sess. XII (1517), Constitutio Constituti: Mansi
32, 988 B-C.
28. Cf. Eph. 4, 24.
29. Eph. 4, 1-3.
30. Mt. 20, 28.
31. 1 Jn. 1, 10.
32. Jn. 17, 21.
33. Mt. 18, 20.
34. Cf. Eph. 3, 8.
35. 2 Petr. 1, 4.
36. Cf. S. IOANNES CHRYSOSTOMOS, In loannem Homelia XLVI, PG 59, 260-262.
37. Acts 15, 28.
38. Cf. CONC. FLORENTINUM, Sess. VI (1439), Definitio Laetentur caeli: Mansi
31 1026 E.
39. Rom. 1, 16.
40. Col. 2, 12; cf. Rom. 6, 4
41. Col. 3, 17.
42. Rom. 5, 5.