ADDRESS OF HIS EM. CARD. ANGELO SODANO
The Church's commitment to justice and peace
Cardinal Renato Martino has already welcomed you at the beginning of this Congress. I too wish to express cordial greetings to all of you; I am pleased to be here with you who work in various parts of the world to spread the Gospel message of justice and peace.
You are all welcome in Rome. This is a city that prompts thoughts of international cooperation in minds and hearts. Peter came here, by divine inspiration, to form a centre from which the Gospel of Christ would radiate out into the world. From here, over the course of 2,000 years of history, there has spread to every part of the earth the song that resounded over the cave in Bethlehem: "Peace to people of good will!".
Today too the Church is committed to this noble mission, with your intelligent and generous cooperation. The Holy Father Pope John Paul II is grateful to you for this, and he sends you his heartfelt Blessing.
In my intervention this afternoon I intend to examine with you the various aspects of the Church's commitment to justice and peace in relation to her vaster commitment to preaching the Gospel of Christ to all people of every time, and to sanctifying them internally with his grace.
1. The Church's mission
The Lord Jesus founded the Church for the purpose of continuing his work of salvation over centuries. The Church's objective, in accordance with the divine plan, is the salvation of men and women; this objective has an eschatological character and cannot be fully achieved except in the world to come.(1)
By reason of her duties and competence, the Church is both the sign and the guarantee of the transcendental character of the human person.(2) Even if salvation will not be fully attained until the next life, it nonetheless embraces the whole person and has an integral dimension that includes the natural order, which has been taken on and elevated by Jesus Christ.
The Church's mission, then, does not entail a moving away from the world; rather, the Church "goes forward together with humanity and experiences the same earthly lot which the world does. She serves as a leaven and as a kind of soul for human society as it is to be renewed in Christ and transformed into God's family.... Pursuing the saving purpose which is proper to her, the Church not only communicates divine life to men but in some way casts the reflected light of that life over the entire earth, most of all by its healing and elevating impact on the dignity of the person, by the way in which it strengthens the seams of human society and imbues the everyday activity of men with a deeper meaning and importance".(3)
In this sense the Church is called to serve the world of men and women in a manner consonant with her nature as willed by her Founder.
The Church's nature is understood in the light of the intimate bond that exists between the order of Creation and that of Redemption. These are two different but not separate spheres.
The Apostle Paul, speaking to the Colossians of the sublime dignity of Christ, writes: "He is the image of the invisible God, the first-born of all creation; for in him all things were created, in heaven and on earth... all things were created through him and for him. He is before all things and in him all things hold together" (Col 1: 15-17). The Incarnation of the Eternal Word shows the intimate connection between the two levels; everything has been created and redeemed by him, everything holds together in him, and everything finds its final purpose in him.
Christ has entrusted to the Church the task of continuing his mission. Therefore, the Church has the right, and at the same time the duty, to evangelize and to sanctify the whole of human life, including the social sphere; the Lord has established the Church as "the universal sacrament of salvation".(4)
Her universality or catholicity must not be understood only in a numeric or geographic sense, for it also refers to all people and, therefore, to social relationships. Catholicity is one of the essential marks of the Church and her mission: "This characteristic of universality which adorns the People of God is a gift from the Lord himself. By reason of it, the Catholic Church strives constantly and with due effect to bring all humanity and all its possessions back to its source in Christ, with him as its head and united in his Spirit".(5)
2. The goods of justice and peace in the Old Testament
The goods concerning social relationships are part of the goods belonging to humanity. They are goods frequently referred to in Sacred Scripture to show their connection with the work of Redemption. In fact, the first duty in the temporal order that the Creator entrusts to man is that of cultivating and developing the goods of the earth, so that they may provide growth and fullness for the human family (cf. Gn 1: 28; 2: 15).
As far as the values of justice and peace are concretely concerned, it must be emphasized that Sacred Scripture applies a very broad meaning to these, expressed by concepts that we commonly intend in using these words and by concepts that refer to the supernatural order, such as sanctity and fullness of life.
The Old Testament often recalls the need to practice justice in relation to one's neighbour (cf. Dt 24: 14-15; Ps 106: 3; Prv 11: 1, 6), and teaches that worshiping God, fasting and all other religious practices are not pleasing to the Lord unless they are accompanied by justice and mercy, particularly towards the neediest (cf. Sir 5: 6, 8; Is 58: 6-10; Am 5: 21-24). Fidelity to this divine plan will be a source of enduring tranquillity because God will remove evil and make it possible to live in peace (cf. Ps 85: 9, 11; Zep 3: 13, 14, 18); a peace that will embrace all the peoples of the earth (cf. Is 2: 2-4; Mi 4: 1-4).
Peace will be complete in the Messianic Kingdom (cf. Is 9: 5-6, 11: 6-10; Zec 9: 10), which is a Kingdom of justice, love and peace; it will be definitive only in the world to come. This, however, must not lead to discouragement; on the contrary, it should be an incentive to work even harder in our commitment to justice and peace.
3. In the New Testament
The teachings of the Ancient Law are taken up and brought to perfection by Jesus.
"And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up; and he went to the synagogue, as his custom was, on the sabbath day. And he stood up to read; and there was given to him the book of the prophet Isaiah. He opened the book and found the place where it was written, "The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim release to the captives and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those who are oppressed, to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord'. And he closed the book and gave it back to the attendant, and sat down; and the eyes of all in the synagogue were fixed on him. And he began to say to them, "Today this scripture is fulfilled in your hearing'" (Lk 4: 16-21).
The Incarnation of the Son of God produces effects not only in the spiritual and transcendent realm, but also in the social and material sphere. Jesus, when he speaks of the final judgment, plainly states that this will depend on what each of us has done for those who are neediest (cf. Mt 25: 31-46).
Between the two levels, however, there exists a mutual dependence, which shows the need for social commitment arising also from religious motivations.
Therefore, the Lord commands not only to give to God what is God's (that is, everything), but also to give to Caesar what is Caesar's, that is to say, to live completely the requirements of justice and peace in social relationships.(7)
This doctrine has been developed further by the Apostles; St John writes, "By this it may be seen who are the children of God, and who are the children of the devil: whoever does not do right is not of God, nor he who does not love his brother" (I Jn 3: 10).
4. In the Church's Magisterium
The Church Fathers and the Magisterium handed on this teaching, which has been faithfully lived out in the lives of so many Christians over the centuries. Blessed John XXIII recalls this fact at the beginning of his Encyclical Mater et Magister.
After stating that the Church's principal concern is the eternal salvation of men and women, but also their temporal good, Pope John goes on to add: "Small wonder, then, that the Catholic Church, in imitation of Christ and in fulfilment of his commandment, relies not merely upon her teaching to hold aloft the torch of charity, but also upon her own widespread example. This has been her course now for nigh on 2,000 years, from the early ministrations of her deacons right down to the present time. It is a charity which combines the precepts and practice of mutual love. It holds fast to the twofold aspect of Christ's command to give, and summarizes the whole of the Church's social teaching and activity".(8)
Ten years later, in a different way, Paul VI repeated: "It is everyone's duty, but especially that of Christians, to work with energy for the establishment of universal brotherhood, the indispensable basis for authentic justice and the condition for enduring peace".(9)
Such has been the commitment of true Christians throughout history and such must be our commitment, which is perhaps even more necessary in today's world. Populorum Progressio, in fact, had already observed that the world was sick;(10) since then, the illness seems to have grown worse and injustice and violence have multiplied.
All we need to do is to think of places where humiliation has become a way of life; areas where war, guerrilla tactics and terrorism are increasing; refugee camps; people forced into exile; racial and religious discrimination; workplaces where it seems that the employees are used as a means; the lack of political freedom and the freedom to form unions; and so many modes of behaviour where equity and peace are absent.
The Holy Father John Paul II, commemorating the Encyclical of Paul VI, writes: "In today's world, including the world of economics, the prevailing picture is one destined to lead us more quickly towards death rather than one of concern for true development which would lead all towards a "more human' life, as envisaged by the Encyclical Populorum Progressio".(11)
5. The time for action
Certainly, this negative scenario cannot make us forget that many parts of the world have seen improvements in economic, health and work conditions, and even in cultural and spiritual conditions. There are, however, still many people subjected to inhuman exploitation.(12)
The scope of this exploitation cannot be seen only as a statistic to be studied antiseptically. Behind the statistics there are human beings with their inalienable dignity; there is a concrete person, created and redeemed by the Lord; there is a brother or sister of ours and we are all responsible for his or her destiny.(13)
The appeal made by Paul VI is urgent: "It is to all Christians that we address a fresh and insistent call to action.... Let each one examine himself, to see what he has done up to now and what he ought to do. It is not enough to recall principles, state intentions, point to crying injustice and utter prophetic denunciations; these words will lack real weight unless they are accompanied for each individual by a livelier awareness of personal responsibility and by effective action. It is too easy to throw back on others responsibility for injustice, if at the same time one does not realize how each one shares in it personally, and how personal conversion is needed first".(14)
In the words that follow, John Paul II - although speaking to the lay faithful - also emphasizes the need for a serious social commitment on the part of all: "A new state of affairs today, both in the Church and in social, economic, political and cultural life, calls with a particular urgency for the action of the lay faithful. If lack of commitment is always unacceptable, the present time renders it even more so. It is not permissible for anyone to remain idle".(15)
6. The religious inspiration
The commitment to justice and peace is an integral part of the demands made by the Gospel. Consequently, this commitment must be taken on not for ideological reasons,(16) but as the result of a profound identification with Jesus.
In social questions, and more specifically in the promotion of peace and justice, it needs to be remembered that who a Christian is and what he does must be manifestations of the Good News of Jesus. Jesus has united this Good News to a mission of liberation and salvation in every situation - in the family, in the workplace, in politics, etc.
When Christians undertake action and neglect their personal relationship with Jesus Christ, they do not do more for the good of society but less.(17) The more the action of Christians in the world is deeply rooted in the supernatural, the more effective it will be.(18)
This is the case for all the faithful.(19) But the commitment in the social sphere is particularly important for the laity, who have received from the Lord the specific vocation to "seek the kingdom of God by engaging in temporal affairs and by ordering them according to the plan of God".(20)
In fulfilling their Christian mission through their secular duties, the laity must know, and demonstrate with their lives, how important their personal efforts aimed at holiness are, both for facing social realities and for improving them. Only someone who has been made new in Christ is able to bring about the authentic renewal of social institutions and to make a serious contribution to the development of justice and peace in his own environment.
7. The field of action
In this regard, I believe that our action must be directed to three objectives: the person, institutions and culture.
I have put the person first because unless there is inner growth in the person, in his moral and religious aspects, social renewal will not be long-lasting, as history has constantly shown; and it is also true that the lack of social commitment is evidence of an impoverished spiritual life. Institutions, then, must become the object of special attention, lest they be easily overwhelmed by the dominating culture.
A recent important Document of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith emphasizes that "the presentation of the fruits of the spiritual, intellectual and moral heritage of Catholicism in terms understandable to modern culture is a task of great urgency today.... It is insufficient and reductive to think that the commitment of Catholics in society can be limited to a simple transformation of structures, because if at the basic level there is no culture capable of receiving, justifying and putting into practice positions deriving from faith and morals, the changes will always rest on a weak foundation".(21)
The cultural commitment of Christians and of all people of good will is therefore important, for it allows the spreading of a just and peaceful mentality, the only mentality capable of consolidating justice and peace in society in a lasting manner.
8. The work of the hierarchy
The commitment of individual members of the faithful for the promotion of social values does not eliminate the commitment of the Bishops. Throughout history ecclesial institutions have also worked for the promotion of justice and peace, and more generally for the good of persons and of the societies in which they live. And this was done not only from a theoretical and doctrinal point of view, but also from a practical point of view.
Leo XIII emphasized how the Christian religion had provided for "all things which are held to be advantageous in a State; so much so, indeed, that, according to St Augustine, one cannot see how it could have offered greater help in the matter of living well and happily, had it been instituted for the single object of procuring or increasing those things which contributed to the conveniences or advantages of this mortal life".(22)
In the last century these efforts have been greatly multiplied. In the area of peace founded on justice, we need only to think of the different interventions made by Leo XIII, the appeals made by Benedict XV to belligerent countries in the First World War and the efforts of Pius XI to spread a pacification of spirits, the lack of which gave rise to the Second World War.
After this, Pius XII engaged in far-ranging pastoral and doctrinal activity on behalf of justice and peace in every sector of society and in the whole world, and the brief Pontificate of Bl. John XXIII also became a shining period in the Church's commitment to peace.
With all these precedents, it is natural that the Second Vatican Council would dedicate part of a chapter of one of its important Documents, the Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, to the promotion of peace,(23) in addition to various places in other Documents. The Council Fathers did not limit themselves to making a theoretical presentation in the Pastoral Constitution, but they saw also the appropriateness of establishing an organism that would promote values consistent with peace.
The Council, "considering the immensity of the hardships which still afflict the greater part of mankind today, regards it as most opportune that an organism of the universal Church be set up in order that both the justice and love of Christ toward the poor might be developed everywhere. The role of such an organism would be to stimulate the Catholic community to promote progress in needy regions and international social justice".(24)
9. The establishment of "lustitia et Pax"
Paul VI accepted this suggestion and established the Pontifical Commission "lustitia et Pax" with the Motu Proprio Catholicam Christi Eccelesiae of 6 January 1967; almost 10 years later, on 10 December 1976, he gave the Commission its definitive mandate with the Motu Proprio lustitiam et Pacem. The reform of the Roman Curia brought about by John Paul II, to which the Apostolic Constitution Pastor Bonus of 28 June 1988 is devoted, transformed the Pontifical Commission into the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, reconfirming its functions.
I mention these details not because we are participating in a Congress organized by this Pontifical Council, but because it seems to me that the goals, instruments and method of this Council can serve as a model - not to be copied mechanically but to be followed creatively - for ecclesial organizations working for justice and peace.
10. The goals of the Council
Concretely, the Constitution Pastor Bonus, in article 142, indicates the goal: "The goal of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace is to promote justice and peace in the world in accordance with the Gospel and the social doctrine of the Church".
The clarification that justice and peace are to be promoted according to the Gospel and the social doctrine of the Church is important, so as not to promote an ideology, as was earlier said, of justice and peace only in name, but not in reality. I note that this is the line followed by the Pontifical Council, as witnessed in the very recent Document, the Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church.
It is good for all ecclesial organizations working in this field to be careful not to distort this reality, for fidelity to man, fidelity to the Church and fidelity to Jesus Christ.
Article 143 of the above-mentioned Apostolic Constitution summarized in three paragraphs what must be done to achieve the indicated goal:
a) The first paragraph indicates the need for thorough study of the Church's social doctrine;(25) your organizations, too, must strive seriously to know and put into practice the Church's social doctrine. I shall not dwell further on this point since part of your work these days is precisely to do this.
b) The second paragraph calls for collecting information and the results of research concerning justice and peace;(26) this too is part of your activity during these days.
c) The third paragraph presents the commitment to increasing awareness of the duty to foster peace.(27)
In this regard it is necessary to re-evaluate the celebration of the World Day of Peace, recalling and concretely pursuing the purpose for which Paul VI established it: to prompt the faithful to pray for peace and to be true peacemakers. This purpose was repeated by John Paul II in his first Message for the World Day of Peace, in which he recalled: "Peace is our work: it calls for our courageous and united action. But it is inseparably and above all a gift of God: it requires our prayer. Christians must be in the first rank of those who pray daily for peace".(28)
It is good to emphasize, therefore, that this celebration must be a day of prayer to ask the Lord to give all people a peaceful and peacemaking heart, and to grant that they may have the strength and courage needed to work tirelessly for peace. It would also be very appropriate that the actions to be engaged in for peace should possibly be carried out along the lines of the annual Message, which is meant not only to be known, but above all to be lived out. This is why it is published several weeks beforehand, to give people time for personal and/or community reflection so that the guidelines presented in the Message can be received in people's hearts and put into practice.
11. The method of work
A further aspect by which the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace can help you in your work is that of method. Of course, by the word "method" I am not referring to a rigid procedure but to a set of criteria that can facilitate the assigned task.
These basic criteria can be found in the first Address that Paul VI delivered, on 20 April 1967, to the then Pontifical Commission "Iustitia et Pax": "In our eyes you represent the realization of the Council's last desire (cf. Gaudium et Spes, n. 90). As in other times, and still today, once a church or bell tower is built, the figure of a rooster is placed on the top as a symbol of vigilance in faith and in the entire programme of Christian life. In the same way, on the spiritual edifice of the Council has been placed this Commission, with the function of keeping the eyes of the Church open, her heart sensitive and her hands ready to carry out the work of charity which she is called to accomplish in the world, in order to "promote progress in needy regions and international social justice'".(29)
The criteria indicated by the Holy Father are three: keeping eyes open, the heart sensitive and hands ready to promote justice and peace. Permit me now to offer a very brief comment on these points.
a) "Eyes open" means being attentive to the signs of the times, in order to see the world and our brothers and sisters with the eyes of God, that is, with eyes that are always filled with love, understanding, the desire to help; eyes that make no distinction between people, whether for race, culture or social class; whether for political or religious ideas; whether for similarity of character or lack thereof, etc.
"Eyes open" also means "seeing God" in people and events, whether they seem good or bad; it means "seeing the divine action" in every circumstance of one's own life and the lives of others. Consequently, this leads to attitudes of trust and hope in God's plan for history, notwithstanding the problems that are present.(30)
b) The second point is a sensitive heart; this indicates a positive feeling towards others that penetrates deeply as an experience of those who are different from us and as an experience of their circumstances; it is therefore the opposite of making oneself the point of reference and being selfishly closed to others. Such a sensitive heart represents the original fabric of life in society, connected to love and solidarity.(31)
c) Lastly, we must consider the hands ready to do good, which is a necessary consequence of keeping one's eyes open and heart sensitive; it is the behaviour that measures and demonstrates the effectiveness of this vision and sensitivity.
When we read the Gospels we realize that Jesus' strongest reproaches are directed against hypocrites, those who say but do not do (cf. Mt 23: 3); the same aversion is found in other sacred books.
Perhaps it is worth our time to reread a passage from the Letter of the Apostle James: "If a brother or sister is ill-clad and in lack of daily food, and one of you says to them, "Go in peace, be warmed and filled', without giving them the things needed for the body, what does it profit? So faith by itself, if it has no works, is dead" (Jas 2: 15-17).
These words have an immediate application in social action, which we can paraphrase thus: "If knowledge of the Church's social doctrine is not shown through works, it is a knowledge dead in itself".
The Holy Father [John Paul II], in continuity with all the previous social Magisterium, says it in another way: "[The Church's] social message will gain credibility more immediately from the witness of actions than as a result of its internal logic and consistency".(32)
We must conclude: throughout her history the Church has always been committed, both as an institution and through her faithful, to the promotion of justice and peace. We have the responsibility to continue along this path, proclaiming the Gospel of Christ, which is the Gospel of justice and peace.
It is a Gospel that still today has the capacity to transform human existence. It is that leaven of the Gospel parable that still today can elevate from within and ennoble the life of our society. It will be slow and gradual work, as is in the nature of leaven, but it will certainly be a work that will give a new sense to the course of humanity.
(1) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, n. 40.
(2) Cf. ibid., n. 76.
(3) Ibid., n. 40.
(4) Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, n. 48; ibid., Decree Ad Gentes, n. 5.
(5) Second Vatican Council; Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, n. 13; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, n. 813.
(6) Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, n. 25.
(7) John Paul II, commenting on this passage of the Gospel, said: "By his response Jesus gives an indication of a line of behaviour that is valid not only for the historical situation of the moment, but also for our day and for all times. He states that the world of religion and that of politics are distinct, each with its own purpose and each with the power to obligate, for its part, people's consciences.
(8) John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magister: AAS 53 (1961), n. 402.
(9) Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, n. 17.
(10) "Human society is suffering from a serious illness. Its cause is more correctly found in the severed bonds of brotherhood both between men and nations, than in the diminished or monopolized resources of nature". Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, n. 66.
(11) John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, n. 24.
(12) Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, n. 33.
(13) "We are all really responsible for all". John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, n. 38.
(14) PauI VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, n. 48.
(15) John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici, n. 3.
(16) In one of his first Encyclicals, John Paul II demonstrated the failures arising from the desire to establish justice on ideological bases: "It would be difficult not to notice that very often programmes which start from the idea of justice and which ought to assist its fulfillment among individuals, groups and human societies, in practice suffer from distortions. Although they continue to appeal to the idea of justice, nevertheless, experience shows that other negative forces have gained the upper hand over justice, such as spite, hatred and even cruelty.
(17) "There cannot be two parallel lives in their existence: on the one hand, the so-called "spiritual' life, with its values and demands; and on the other, the so-called "secular' life, that is, life in a family, at work, in social relationships, in the responsibilities of public life and in culture". John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici, n. 59. Although these words are addressed to the laity, they hold true for all the faithful of the Church.
(18) "An increased sense of God and increased self-awareness are fundamental to any full development of human society. This development multiplies material goods and puts them at the service of the person and his freedom. It reduces dire poverty and economic exploitation. It makes for growth in respect for cultural identities and openness to the transcendent (cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, n. 32; Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, n. 51)". Catechism of the Catholic Church, n. 2441.
(19) In fact, with regard to men and women religious it has been written: "The witness of Religious for justice in the world, however, implies, for themselves in particular, a constant review of their life-options, their use of goods and their manner of relating, because the one who dares to speak to others about justice must above all be just in the eyes of others". Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, Instruction Religious and Human Promotion, 1980, n. 4-e.
(20) "They live in the world, that is, in each and in all of the secular professions and occupations. They live in the ordinary circumstances of family and social life, from which the very web of their existence is woven. They are called there by God that by exercising their proper function and led by the spirit of the Gospel they may work for the sanctification of the world from within as a leaven. In this way they may make Christ known to others, especially by the testimony of a life resplendent in faith, hope and charity". Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, n. 31.
(21) Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Doctrinal Note on Some Questions Regarding the Participation of Catholics in Political Life, 24 November 2002, n. 7.
(22) Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter Arcanum Divinae: AAS 12 (1879-80), n. 386.
(23) Chapter Five of Part Two of Gaudium et Spes is entitled "The Fostering of Peace and the Promotion of a Community of Nations".
(24) Second Vatican Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, n. 90.
(25) " 1. The Council makes a thorough study of the social teaching of the Church and ensures that this teaching is widely spread and put into practice among people and communities, especially regarding the relations between workers and management, relations that must come to be more and more imbued with the spirit of the Gospel".
(26) " 2. It collects information and research on justice and peace, about human development and violations of human rights; it ponders all this, and, when appropriate, shares its conclusions with the groupings of Bishops. It cultivates relationships with Catholic international organizations and other institutions, even ones outside the Catholic Church, which sincerely strive to achieve peace and justice in the world".
(27) " 3. It works to form among peoples a mentality which fosters peace, especially on the occasion of the World Day of Peace".
(28) John Paul II, Message for the 1979 World Day of Peace, n. 18.
(29) Paul VI, Address to the Members and Consultors of "lustitia et Pax", 20 April 1967; the English is an unofficial translation of the Italian text found in Insegnamenti di Paolo VI, V (1967), 170-171.
(30) In fact, Paul VI urged the avoidance of "discouragement in the face of a task which seems limitless in size. The Christian's hope comes primarily from the fact that he knows that the Lord is working with us in the world, continuing in his Body which is the Church - and, through the Church, in the whole of mankind - the Redemption which was accomplished on the Cross and which burst forth in victory on the morning of the Resurrection (cf. Mt 28: 30; Phil 2: 8-11)".
(31) Solidarity is "one of the fundamental principles of the Christian view of social and political organization. This principle is frequently stated by Pope Leo XIII, who uses the term "friendship', a concept already found in Greek philosophy. Pope Pius XI refers to it with the equally meaningful term "social charity'. Pope Paul VI, expanding the concept to cover the many modern aspects of the social question, speaks of a "civilization of love'". John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, n. 10.
(32) John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, n. 57; cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magister: AAS 53 (1961), n. 454; Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, n. 51.