ENCYCLICAL OF POPE PAUL VI
THE DEVELOPMENT OF PEOPLES
MARCH 26, 1967
To the Bishops, Priests, Religious, and Faithful of the Whole Catholic
World, and to All Men of Good Will.
Honored Brothers and Dear Sons, Health and Apostolic Benediction.
The progressive development of peoples is an object of deep interest and
concern to the Church. This is particularly true in the case of those peoples
who are trying to escape the ravages of hunger, poverty, endemic disease and
ignorance; of those who are seeking a larger share in the benefits of
civilization and a more active improvement of their human qualities; of those
who are consciously striving for fuller growth.
The Church's Concern
With an even clearer awareness, since the Second Vatican Council, of the
demands imposed by Christ's Gospel in this area, the Church judges it her duty
to help all men explore this serious problem in all its dimensions, and to
impress upon them the need for concerted action at this critical juncture.
2. Our recent predecessors did not fail to do their duty in this area. Their
noteworthy messages shed the light of the Gospel on contemporary social
questions. There was Leo XIII's encyclical
Rerum Novarum, (1) Pius XI's
Quadragesimo Anno, (2) Pius XII's radio message to the world,
(3) and John XXIII's two encyclicals,
Mater et Magistra (4) and
in Terris. (5)
A Problem for All Men
3. Today it is most important for people to understand and appreciate that
the social question ties all men together, in every part of the world. John
XXIII stated this clearly, (6) and Vatican II confirmed it in its Pastoral
Constitution on The Church in the World of Today. (7) The seriousness and
urgency of these teachings must be recognized without delay.
The hungry nations of the world cry out to the peoples blessed with
abundance. And the Church, cut to the quick by this cry, asks each and every man
to hear his brother's plea and answer it lovingly.
4. Before We became pope, We traveled to Latin America (1960) and Africa
(1962). There We saw the perplexing problems that vex and besiege these
continents, which are otherwise full of life and promise. On being elected pope,
We became the father of all men. We made trips to Palestine and India, gaining
first-hand knowledge of the difficulties that these age-old civilizations must
face in their struggle for further development. Before the close of the Second
Vatican Council, providential circumstances allowed Vs to address the United
Nations and to plead the case of the impoverished nations before that
Justice and Peace
5. Even more recently, We sought to fulfill the wishes of the Council and to
demonstrate the Holy See's concern for the developing nations. To do this, We
felt it was necessary to add another pontifical commission to the Church's
central administration . The purpose of this commission is "to awaken in
the People of God full awareness of their mission today. In this way they can
further the progress of poorer nations and international social justice, as well
as help less developed nations to contribute to their own development." (8)
The name of this commission, Justice and Peace, aptly describes its program
and its goal. We are sure that all men of good will want to join Our fellow
Catholics and fellow Christians in carrying out this program. So today We
earnestly urge all men to pool their ideas and their activities for man's
complete development and the development of all mankind.
I. MAN 'S COMPLETE DEVELOPMENT
6. Today we see men trying to secure a sure food supply, cures for diseases,
and steady employment. We see them trying to eliminate every ill, to remove
every obstacle which offends man's dignity. They are continually striving to
exercise greater personal responsibility; to do more, learn more, and have more
so that they might increase their personal worth. And yet, at the same time, a
large number of them live amid conditions which frustrate these legitimate
Moreover, those nations which have recently gained independence find that
political freedom is not enough. They must also acquire the social and economic
structures and processes that accord with man's nature and activity, if their
citizens are to achieve personal growth and if their country is to take its
rightful place in the international community.
Effects of Colonialism
7. Though insufficient for the immensity and urgency of the task, the means
inherited from the past are not totally useless. It is true that colonizing
nations were sometimes concerned with nothing save their own interests, their
own power and their own prestige; their departure left the economy of these
countries in precarious imbalancethe one-crop economy, for example, which
is at the mercy of sudden, wide-ranging fluctuations in market prices. Certain
types of colonialism surely caused harm and paved the way for further troubles.
On the other hand, we must also reserve a word of praise for those
colonizers whose skills and technical know-how brought benefits to many untamed
lands, and whose work survives to this day. The structural machinery they
introduced was not fully developed or perfected, but it did help to reduce
ignorance and disease, to promote communication, and to improve living
The Widening Gap
8. Granted all this, it is only too clear that these structures are no match
for the harsh economic realities of today. Unless the existing machinery is
modified, the disparity between rich and poor nations will increase rather than
diminish; the rich nations are progressing with rapid strides while the poor
nations move forward at a slow pace.
The imbalance grows with each passing day: while some nations produce a food
surplus, other nations are in desperate need of food or are unsure of their
Signs of Social Unrest
9. At the same time, social unrest has gradually spread throughout the
world. The acute restlessness engulfing the poorer classes in countries that are
now being industrialized has spread to other regions where agriculture is the
mainstay of the economy. The farmer is painfully aware of his "wretched
Then there are the flagrant inequalities not merely in the enjoyment of
possessions, but even more in the exercise of power. In certain regions a
privileged minority enjoys the refinements of life, while the rest of the
inhabitants, impoverished and disunited, "are deprived of almost all
possibility of acting on their own initiative and responsibility, and often
subsist in living and working conditions unworthy of the human person."
(10) Cultural Conflicts
10. Moreover, traditional culture comes into conflict with the advanced
techniques of modern industrialization; social structures out of tune with
today's demands are threatened with extinction. For the older generation, the
rigid structures of traditional culture are the necessary mainstay of one's
personal and family life; they cannot be abandoned. The younger generation, on
the other hand, regards them as useless obstacles, and rejects them to embrace
new forms of societal life.
The conflict between generations leads to a tragic dilemma: either to
preserve traditional beliefs and structures and reject social progress; or to
embrace foreign technology and foreign culture, and reject ancestral traditions
with their wealth of humanism. The sad fact is that we often see the older
moral, spiritual and religious values give way without finding any place in the
new scheme of things.
11. In such troubled times some people are strongly tempted by the alluring
but deceitful promises of would-be saviors. Who does not see the concomitant
dangers: public upheavals, civil insurrection, the drift toward totalitarian
These are the realities of the question under study here, and their gravity
must surely be apparent to everyone.
The Church and Development
12. True to the teaching and example of her divine Founder, who cited the
preaching of the Gospel to the poor as a sign of His mission, (12) the Church
has never failed to foster the human progress of the nations to which she brings
faith in Christ. Besides erecting sacred edifices, her missionaries have also
promoted construction of hospitals, sanitariums, schools and universities. By
teaching the native population how to take full advantage of natural resources,
the missionaries often protected them from the greed of foreigners.
We would certainly admit that this work was sometimes far from perfect,
since it was the work of men. The missionaries sometimes intermingled the
thought patterns and behavior patterns of their native land with the authentic
message of Christ. Yet, for all this, they did protect and promote indigenous
institutions; and many of them pioneered in promoting the country's material and
We need only mention the efforts of Pere Charles de Foucauld: he compiled a
valuable dictionary of the Tuareg language, and his charity won him the title, "everyone's
brother." So We deem it fitting to praise those oft forgotten pioneers who
were motivated by love for Christ, just as We honor their imitators and
successors who today continue to put themselves at the generous and unselfish
service of those to whom they preach the Gospel.
The Present Need
13. In the present day, however, individual and group effort within these
countries is no longer enough. The world situation requires the concerted effort
of everyone, a thorough examination of every facet of the problemsocial,
economic, cultural and spiritual.
The Church, which has long experience in human affairs and has no desire to
be involved in the political activities of any nation, "seeks but one goal:
to carry forward the work of Christ under the lead of the befriending Spirit.
And Christ entered this world to give witness to the truth; to save, not to
judge; to serve, not to be served.'' (12)
Founded to build the kingdom of heaven on earth rather than to acquire
temporal power, the Church openly avows that the two powersChurch and
Stateare distinct from one another; that each is supreme in its own sphere
of competency. (13) But since the Church does dwell among men, she has the duty
"of scrutinizing the signs of the times and of interpreting them in the
light of the Gospel." (14) Sharing the noblest aspirations of men and
suffering when she sees these aspirations not satisfied, she wishes to help them
attain their full realization. So she offers man her distinctive contribution: a
global perspective on man and human realities.
14. The development We speak of here cannot be restricted to economic growth
alone. To be authentic, it must be well rounded; it must foster the development
of each man and of the whole man. As an eminent specialist on this question has
rightly said: "We cannot allow economics to be separated from human
realities, nor development from the civilization in which it takes place. What
counts for us is maneach individual man, each human group, and humanity as
a whole.'' (15)
15. In God's plan, every man is born to seek self-fulfillment, for every
human life is called to some task by God. At birth a human being possesses
certain aptitudes and abilities in germinal form, and these qualities are to be
cultivated so that they may bear fruit. By developing these traits through
formal education of personal effort, the individual works his way toward the
goal set for him by the Creator.
Endowed with intellect and free will, each man is responsible for his
self-fulfillment even as he is for his salvation. He is helped, and sometimes
hindered, by his teachers and those around him; yet whatever be the outside
influences exerted on him, he is the chief architect of his own success or
failure. Utilizing only his talent and willpower, each man can grow in humanity,
enhance his personal worth, and perfect himself.
Man's Supernatural Destiny
16. Self-development, however, is not left up to man's option. Just as the
whole of creation is ordered toward its Creator, so too the rational creature
should of his own accord direct his life to God, the first truth and the highest
good. Thus human self-fulfillment may be said to sum up our obligations.
Moreover, this harmonious integration of our human nature, carried through
by personal effort and responsible activity, is destined for a higher state of
perfection. United with the life-giving Christ, man's life is newly enhanced; it
acquires a transcendent humanism which surpasses its nature and bestows new
fullness of life. This is the highest goal of human self-fulfillment.
Ties With All Men
17. Each man is also a member of society; hence he belongs to the community
of man. It is not just certain individuals but all men who are called to further
the development of human society as a whole. Civilizations spring up, flourish
and die. As the waves of the sea gradually creep farther and farther in along
the shoreline, so the human race inches its way forward through history.
We are the heirs of earlier generations, and we reap benefits from the
efforts of our contemporaries; we are under obligation to all men. Therefore we
cannot disregard the welfare of those who will come after us to increase the
human family. The reality of human solidarity brings us not only benefits but
Development in Proper Perspective
18. Man's personal and collective fulfillment could be jeopardized if the
proper scale of values were not maintained. The pursuit of life's necessities is
quite legitimate; hence we are duty-bound to do the work which enables us to
obtain them: "If anyone is unwilling to work, do not let him eat.'' (l6)
But the acquisition of worldly goods can lead men to greed, to the unrelenting
desire for more, to the pursuit of greater personal power. Rich and poor alikebe
they individuals, families or nationscan fall prey to avarice and
19. Neither individuals nor nations should regard the possession of more and
more goods as the ultimate objective. Every kind of progress is a two-edged
sword. It is necessary if man is to grow as a human being; yet it can also
enslave him, if he comes to regard it as the supreme good and cannot look beyond
it. When this happens, men harden their hearts, shut out others from their minds
and gather together solely for reasons of self-interest rather than out of
friendship; dissension and disunity follow soon after.
Thus the exclusive pursuit of material possessions prevents man's growth as
a human being and stands in opposition to his true grandeur. Avarice, in
individuals and in nations, is the most obvious form of stultified moral
A New Humanism Needed
20. If development calls for an ever-growing number of technical experts,
even more necessary still is the deep thought and reflection of wise men in
search of a new humanism, one which will enable our contemporaries to enjoy the
higher values of love and friendship, of prayer and contemplation, (17) and thus
find themselves. This is what will guarantee man's authentic developmenthis
transition from less than human conditions to truly human ones.
The Scale of Values
21. What are less than human conditions? The material poverty of those who
lack the bare necessities of life, and the moral poverty of those who are
crushed under the weight of their own self-love; oppressive political structures
resulting from the abuse of ownership or the improper exercise of power, from
the exploitation of the worker or unjust transactions.
What are truly human conditions? The rise from poverty to the acquisition of
life's necessities; the elimination of social ills; broadening the horizons of
knowledge; acquiring refinement and culture. From there one can go on to acquire
a growing awareness of other people's dignity, a taste for the spirit of
poverty, (l8) an active interest in the common good, and a desire for peace.
Then man can acknowledge the highest values and God Himself, their author and
end. Finally and above all, there is faithGod's gift to men of good willand
our loving unity in Christ, who calls all men to share God's life as sons of the
living God, the Father of all men.
Issues and Principles
22. In the very first pages of Scripture we read these words: "Fill the
earth and subdue it."(19) This teaches us that the whole of creation is for
man, that he has been charged to give it meaning by his intelligent activity, to
complete and perfect it by his own efforts and to his own advantage.
Now if the earth truly was created to provide man with the necessities of
life and the tools for his own progress, it follows that every man has the right
to glean what he needs from the earth. The recent Council reiterated this truth:
"God intended the earth and everything in it for the use of all human
beings and peoples. Thus, under the leadership of justice and in the company of
charity, created goods should flow fairly to all." (20)
All other rights, whatever they may be, including the rights of property and
free trade, are to be subordinated to this principle. They should in no way
hinder it; in fact, they should actively facilitate its implementation.
Redirecting these rights back to their original purpose must be regarded as an
important and urgent social duty.
The Use of Private Property
23. "He who has the goods of this world and sees his brother in need
and closes his heart to him, how does the love of God abide in him?" (21)
Everyone knows that the Fathers of the Church laid down the duty of the rich
toward the poor in no uncertain terms. As St. Ambrose put it: "You are not
making a gift of what is yours to the poor man, but you are giving him back what
is his. You have been appropriating things that are meant to be for the common
use of everyone. The earth belongs to everyone, not to the rich." (22)
These words indicate that the right to private property is not absolute and
No one may appropriate surplus goods solely for his own private use when
others lack the bare necessities of life. In short, "as the Fathers of the
Church and other eminent theologians tell us, the right of private property may
never be exercised to the detriment of the common good." When "private
gain and basic community needs conflict with one another," it is for the
public authorities "to seek a solution to these questions, with the active
involvement of individual citizens and social groups." (23)
The Common Good
24. If certain landed estates impede the general prosperity because they are
extensive, unused or poorly used, or because they bring hardship to peoples or
are detrimental to the interests of the country, the common good sometimes
demands their expropriation.
Vatican II affirms this emphatically. (24) At the same time it clearly
teaches that income thus derived is not for man's capricious use, and that the
exclusive pursuit of personal gain is prohibited. Consequently, it is not
permissible for citizens who have garnered sizeable income from the resources
and activities of their own nation to deposit a large portion of their income in
foreign countries for the sake of their own private gain alone, taking no
account of their country's interests; in doing this, they clearly wrong their
The Value of Industrialization
25. The introduction of industrialization, which is necessary for economic
growth and human progress, is both a sign of development and a spur to it. By
dint of intelligent thought and hard work, man gradually uncovers the hidden
laws of nature and learns to make better use of natural resources. As he takes
control over his way of life, he is stimulated to undertake new investigations
and fresh discoveries, to take prudent risks and launch new ventures, to act
responsibly and give of himself unselfishly.
26. However, certain concepts have somehow arisen out of these new
conditions and insinuated themselves into the fabric of human society. These
concepts present profit as the chief spur to economic progress, free competition
as the guiding norm of economics, and private ownership of the means of
production as an absolute right, having no limits nor concomitant social
This unbridled liberalism paves the way for a particular type of tyranny,
rightly condemned by Our predecessor Pius XI, for it results in the "international
imperialism of money."(26)
Such improper manipulations of economic forces can never be condemned
enough; let it be said once again that economics is supposed to be in the
service of man. (27)
But if it is true that a type of capitalism, as it is commonly called, has
given rise to hardships, unjust practices, and fratricidal conflicts that
persist to this day, it would be a mistake to attribute these evils to the rise
of industrialization itself, for they really derive from the pernicious economic
concepts that grew up along with it. We must in all fairness acknowledge the
vital role played by labor systemization and industrial organization in the task
Nobility of Work
27. The concept of work can turn into an exaggerated mystique. Yet, for all
that, it is something willed and approved by God. Fashioned in the image of his
Creator, "man must cooperate with Him in completing the work of creation
and engraving on the earth the spiritual imprint which he himself has received."
(25) God gave man intelligence, sensitivity and the power of thoughttools
with which to finish and perfect the work He began. Every worker is, to some
extent, a creatorbe he artist, craftsman, executive, laborer or farmer.
Bent over a material that resists his efforts, the worker leaves his imprint
on it, at the same time developing his own powers of persistence, inventiveness
and concentration. Further, when work is done in commonwhen hope,
hardship, ambition and joy are sharedit brings together and firmly unites
the wills, minds and hearts of men. In its accomplishment, men find themselves
to be brothers. (29)
Dangers and Ideals
28. Work, too, has a double edge. Since it promises money, pleasure and
power, it stirs up selfishness in some and incites other to revolt. On the other
hand, it also fosters a professional outlook, a sense of duty, and love of
neighbor. Even though it is now being organized more scientifically and
efficiently, it still can threaten man's dignity and enslave him; for work is
human only if it results from man's use of intellect and free will.
Our predecessor John XXIII stressed the urgent need of restoring dignity to
the worker and making him a real partner in the common task: "Every effort
must be made to ensure that the enterprise is indeed a true human community,
concerned about the needs, the activities and the standing of each of its
Considered from a Christian point of view, work has an even loftier
connotation. It is directed to the establishment of a supernatural order here on
earth, (31) a task that will not be completed until we all unite to form that
perfect manhood of which St. Paul speaks, "the mature measure of the
fullness of Christ." (32)
Balanced Progress Required
29. We must make haste. Too many people are suffering. While some make
progress, others stand still or move backwards; and the gap between them is
widening. However, the work must proceed in measured steps if the proper
equilibrium is to be maintained. Makeshift agrarian reforms may fall short of
their goal. Hasty industrialization can undermine vital institutions and produce
social evils, causing a setback to true human values.
Reform, Not Revolution
30. The injustice of certain situations cries out for God's attention.
Lacking the bare necessities of life, whole nations are under the thumb of
others; they cannot act on their own initiative; they cannot exercise personal
responsibility; they cannot work toward a higher degree of cultural refinement
or a greater participation in social and public life. They are sorely tempted to
redress these insults to their human nature by violent means.
31. Everyone knows, however, that revolutionary uprisingsexcept where
there is manifest, longstanding tyranny which would do great damage to
fundamental personal rights and dangerous harm to the common good of the countryengender
new injustices, introduce new inequities and bring new disasters. The evil
situation that exists, and it surely is evil, may not be dealt with in such a
way that an even worse situation results.
A Task for Everyone
32. We want to be clearly understood on this point: The present state of
affairs must be confronted boldly, and its concomitant injustices must be
challenged and overcome. Continuing development calls for bold innovations that
will work profound changes. The critical state of affairs must be corrected for
the better without delay.
Everyone must lend a ready hand to this task, particularly those who can do
most by reason of their education, their office, or their authority. They should
set a good example by contributing part of their own goods, as several of Our
brother bishops have done. (33) In this way they will be responsive to men's
longings and faithful to the Holy Spirit, because "the ferment of the
Gospel, too, has aroused and continues to arouse in man's heart the irresistible
requirements of his dignity. (34)
Programs and Planning
33. Individual initiative alone and the interplay of competition will not
ensure satisfactory development. We cannot proceed to increase the wealth and
power of the rich while we entrench the needy in their poverty and add to the
woes of the oppressed. Organized programs are necessary for "directing,
stimulating, coordinating, supplying and integrating" (35) the work of
individuals and intermediary organizations.
It is for the public authorities to establish and lay down the desired
goals, the plans to be followed, and the methods to be used in fulfilling them;
and it is also their task to stimulate the efforts of those involved in this
common activity. But they must also see to it that private initiative and
intermediary organizations are involved in this work. In this way they will
avoid total collectivization and the dangers of a planned economy which might
threaten human liberty and obstruct the exercise of man's basic human rights.
The Ultimate Purpose
34. Organized programs designed to increase productivity should have but one
aim: to serve human nature. They should reduce inequities, eliminate
discrimination, free men from the bonds of servitude, and thus give them the
capacity, in the sphere of temporal realities, to improve their lot, to further
their moral growth and to develop their spiritual endowments. When we speak of
development, we should mean social progress as well as economic growth.
It is not enough to increase the general fund of wealth and then distribute
it more fairly. It is not enough to develop technology so that the earth may
become a more suitable living place for human beings. The mistakes of those who
led the way should help those now on the road to development to avoid certain
dangers. The reign of technologytechnocracy, as it is calledcan
cause as much harm to the world of tomorrow as liberalism did to the world of
yesteryear. Economics and technology are meaningless if they do not benefit man,
for it is he they are to serve. Man is truly human only if he is the master of
his own actions and the judge of their worth, only if he is the architect of his
own progress. He must act according to his God-given nature, freely accepting
its potentials and its claims upon him.
35. We can even say that economic growth is dependent on social progress,
the goal to which it aspires; and that basic education is the first objective
for any nation seeking to develop itself. Lack of education is as serious as
lack of food; the illiterate is a starved spirit. When someone learns how to
read and write, he is equipped to do a job and to shoulder a profession, to
develop self-confidence and realize that he can progress along with others. As We
said in Our message to the UNESCO meeting at Teheran, literacy is the "first
and most basic tool for personal enrichment and social integration; and it is
society's most valuable tool for furthering development and economic progress."
We also rejoice at the good work accomplished in this field by private
initiative, by the public authorities, and by international organizations. These
are the primary agents of development, because they enable man to act for
Role of the Family
36. Man is not really himself, however, except within the framework of
society and there the family plays the basic and most important role. The
family's influence may have been excessive at some periods of history and in
some places, to the extent that it was exercised to the detriment of the
fundamental rights of the individual. Yet time honored social frameworks, proper
to the developing nations, are still necessary for awhile, even as their
excessive strictures are gradually relaxed. The natural family, stable and
monogamousas fashioned by God (37) and sanctified by Christianity"in
which different generations live together, helping each other to acquire greater
wisdom and to harmonize personal rights with other social needs, is the basis of
37. There is no denying that the accelerated rate of population growth
brings many added difficulties to the problems of development where the size of
the population grows more rapidly than the quantity of available resources to
such a degree that things seem to have reached an impasse. In such circumstances
people are inclined to apply drastic remedies to reduce the birth rate.
There is no doubt that public authorities can intervene in this matter,
within the bounds of their competence. They can instruct citizens on this
subject and adopt appropriate measures, so long as these are in conformity with
the dictates of the moral law and the rightful freedom of married couples is
preserved completely intact. When the inalienable right of marriage and of
procreation is taken away, so is human dignity.
Finally, it is for parents to take a thorough look at the matter and decide
upon the number of their children. This is an obligation they take upon
themselves, before their children already born, and before the community to
which they belongfollowing the dictates of their own consciences informed
by God's law authentically interpreted, and bolstered by their trust in Him.
38. In the task of development man finds the family to be the first and most
basic social structure; but he is often helped by professional organizations.
While such organizations are founded to aid and assist their members, they bear
a heavy responsibility for the task of education which they can and must carry
out. In training and developing individual men, they do much to cultivate in
them an awareness of the common good and of its demands upon all.
39. Every form of social action involves some doctrine; and the Christian
rejects that which is based on a materialistic and atheistic philosophy, namely
one which shows no respect for a religious outlook on life, for freedom or human
dignity. So long as these higher values are preserved intact, however, the
existence of a variety of professional organizations and trade unions is
permissible. Variety may even help to preserve freedom and create friendly
rivalry. We gladly commend those people who unselfishly serve their brothers by
working in such organizations.
40. Cultural institutions also do a great deal to further the work of
development. Their important role was stressed by the Council: ". . . the
future of the world stands in peril unless wiser men are forthcoming. It should
also be pointed out that many nations, poorer in economic goods, are quite rich
in wisdom and can offer noteworthy advantages to others." (40)
Every country, rich or poor, has a cultural tradition handed down from past
generations. This tradition includes institutions required by life in the world,
and higher manifestations artistic, intellectual and religiousof the
life of the spirit. When the latter embody truly human values, it would be a
great mistake to sacrifice them for the sake of the former. Any group of people
who would consent to let this happen, would be giving up the better portion of
their heritage; in order to live, they would be giving up their reason for
living. Christ's question is directed to nations also: "What does it profit
a man, if he gain the whole world but suffer the loss of his own soul?'' (41)
Avoiding Past Temptations
41. The poorer nations can never be too much on guard against the temptation
posed by the wealthier nations. For these nations, with their favorable results
from a highly technical and culturally developed civilization, provide an
example of work and diligence with temporal prosperity the main pursuit. Not
that temporal prosperity of itself precludes the activity of the human spirit.
Indeed, with it, "the human spirit, being less subjected to material
things, can be more easily drawn to the worship and contemplation of the
Creator." (42) On the other hand, "modern civilization itself often
complicates the approach to God, not for any essential reason, but because it is
so much engrossed in worldly affairs . " (43)
The developing nations must choose wisely from among the things that are
offered to them. They must test and reject false values that would tarnish a
truly human way of life, while accepting noble and useful values in order to
develop them in their own distinctive way, along with their own indigenous
A Full-Bodied Humanism
42. The ultimate goal is a full-bodied humanism. (44) And does this not mean
the fulfillment of the whole man and of every man? A narrow humanism, closed in
on itself and not open to the values of the spirit and to God who is their
source, could achieve apparent success, for man can set about organizing
terrestrial realities without God. But "closed off from God, they will end
up being directed against man. A humanism closed off from other realities
becomes inhuman." (45)
True humanism points the way toward God and acknowledges the task to which
we are called, the task which offers us the real meaning of human life. Man is
not the ultimate measure of man. Man becomes truly man only by passing beyond
himself. In the words of Pascal: "Man infinitely surpasses man." (46)
II. THE COMMON DEVELOPMENT OF MANKIND
43. Development of the individual necessarily entails a joint effort for the
development of the human race as a whole. At Bombay We said: "Man must meet
man, nation must meet nation, as brothers and sisters, as children of God. In
this mutual understanding and friendship, in this sacred communion, we must also
begin to work together to build the common future of the human race." (47)
We also urge men to explore concrete and practicable ways of organizing and
coordinating their efforts, so that available resources might be shared with
others; in this way genuine bonds between nations might be forged.
Three Major Duties
44. This duty concerns first and foremost the wealthier nations. Their
obligations stem from the human and supernatural brotherhood of man, and present
a three-fold obligation: 1) mutual solidaritythe aid that the richer
nations must give to developing nations; 2) social justicethe
rectification of trade relations between strong and weak nations; 3) universal
charitythe effort to build a more humane world community, where all can
give and receive, and where the progress of some is not bought at the expense of
others. The matter is urgent, for on it depends the future of world
Aid to Developing Nations
45. "If a brother or a sister be naked and in want of daily food,"
says St. James, "and one of you say to them, 'Go in peace, be warm and
filled,' yet you do not give them what is necessary for the body, what does it
profit?" (48) Today no one can be unaware of the fact that on some
continents countless men and women are ravished by hunger and countless children
are undernourished. Many children die at an early age; many more of them find
their physical and mental growth retarded. Thus whole populations are immersed
in pitiable circumstances and lose heart.
46. Anxious appeals for help have already been voiced. That of Our
predecessor John XXIII was warmly received. (49) We reiterated his sentiments in
Our Christmas message of 1963, (50) and again in 1966 on behalf of India. (51)
The work of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
has been encouraged by the Holy See and has found generous support. Our own
organization, Caritas Internationalis, is at work all over the world.
Many Catholics, at the urging of Our brother bishops, have contributed
unstintingly to the assistance of the needy and have gradually widened the
circle of those they call neighbors.
A World of Free Men
47. But these efforts, as well as public and private allocations of gifts,
loans and investments, are not enough. It is not just a question of eliminating
hunger and reducing poverty. It is not just a question of fighting wretched
conditions, though this is an urgent and necessary task. It involves building a
human community where men can live truly human lives, free from discrimination
on account of race, religion or nationality, free from servitude to other men or
to natural forces which they cannot yet control satisfactorily. It involves
building a human community where liberty is not an idle word, where the needy
Lazarus can sit down with the rich man at the same banquet table. (52)
On the part of the rich man, it calls for great generosity, willing
sacrifice and diligent effort. Each man must examine his conscience, which
sounds a new call in our present times. Is he prepared to support, at his own
expense, projects and undertakings designed to help the needy? Is he prepared to
pay higher taxes so that public authorities may expand their efforts in the work
of development? Is he prepared to pay more for imported goods, so that the
foreign producer may make a fairer profit? Is he prepared to emigrate from his
homeland if necessary and if he is young, in order to help the emerging nations?
A National Duty
48. The duty of promoting human solidarity also falls upon the shoulders of
nations: "It is a very important duty of the advanced nations to help the
developing nations . . ." (53) This conciliar teaching must be implemented.
While it is proper that a nation be the first to enjoy the God-given fruits of
its own labor, no nation may dare to hoard its riches for its own use alone.
Each and every nation must produce more and better goods and products, so that
all its citizens may live truly human lives and so that it may contribute to the
common development of the human race.
Considering the mounting indigence of less developed countries, it is only
fitting that a prosperous nation set aside some of the goods it has produced in
order to alleviate their needs; and that it train educators, engineers,
technicians and scholars who will contribute their knowledge and their skill to
these less fortunate countries.
49. We must repeat that the superfluous goods of wealthier nations ought to
be placed at the disposal of poorer nations. The rule, by virtue of which in
times past those nearest us were to be helped in time of need, applies today to
all the needy throughout the world. And the prospering peoples will be the first
to benefit from this. Continuing avarice on their part will arouse the judgment
of God and the wrath of the poor, with consequences no one can foresee. If
prosperous nations continue to be jealous of their own advantage alone, they
will jeopardize their highest values, sacrificing the pursuit of excellence to
the acquisition of possessions. We might well apply to them the parable of the
rich man. His fields yielded an abundant harvest and he did not know where to
store it: "But God said to him, 'Fool, this very night your soul will be
demanded from you . . .' " (54)
50. If these efforts are to be successful, they cannot be disparate and
disorganized; nor should they vie with one another for the sake of power or
prestige. The times call for coordinated planning of projects and programs,
which are much more effective than occasional efforts promoted by individual
As We said above, studies must be made, goals must be defined, methods and
means must be chosen, and the work of select men must be coordinated; only then
will present needs be met and future demands anticipated. Moreover, such planned
programs do more than promote economic and social progress. They give force and
meaning to the work undertaken, put due order into human life, and thus enhance
man's dignity and his capabilities.
A World Fund
51. A further step must be taken. When We were at Bombay for the Eucharistic
Congress, We asked world leaders to set aside part of their military
expenditures for a world fund to relieve the needs of impoverished peoples. (55)
What is true for the immediate war against poverty is also true for the work of
national development. Only a concerted effort on the part of all nations,
embodied in and carried out by this world fund, will stop these senseless
rivalries and promote fruitful, friendly dialogue between nations.
52. It is certainly all right to maintain bilateral and multilateral
agreements. Through such agreements, ties of dependence and feelings of jealousyholdovers
from the era of colonialism give way to friendly relationships of true
solidarity that are based on juridical and political equality. But such
agreements would be free of all suspicion if they were integrated into an
overall policy of worldwide collaboration. The member nations, who benefit from
these agreements, would have less reason for fear or mistrust. They would not
have to worry that financial or technical assistance was being used as a cover
for some new form of colonialism that would threaten their civil liberty, exert
economic pressure on them, or create a new power group with controlling
53. Is it not plain to everyone that such a fund would reduce the need for
those other expenditures that are motivated by fear and stubborn pride?
Countless millions are starving, countless families are destitute, countless men
are steeped in ignorance; countless people need schools, hospitals, and homes
worthy of the name. In such circumstances, we cannot tolerate public and private
expenditures of a wasteful nature; we cannot but condemn lavish displays of
wealth by nations or individuals; we cannot approve a debilitating arms race. It
is Our solemn duty to speak out against them. If only world leaders would listen
to Us, before it is too late!
Dialogue Between Nations
54. All nations must initiate the dialogue which We called for in Our first
Ecclesiam Suam. (56) A dialogue between those who contribute aid and
those who receive it will permit a well-balanced assessment of the support to be
provided, taking into consideration not only the generosity and the available
wealth of the donor nations, but also the real needs of the receiving countries
and the use to which the financial assistance can be put. Developing countries
will thus no longer risk being overwhelmed by debts whose repayment swallows up
the greater part of their gains. Rates of interest and time for repayment of the
loan could be so arranged as not to be too great a burden on either party,
taking into account free gifts, interest-free or low-interest loans, and the
time needed for liquidating the debts.
The donors could certainly ask for assurances as to how the money will be
used. It should be used for some mutually acceptable purpose and with reasonable
hope of success, for there is no question of backing idlers and parasites. On
the other hand, the recipients would certainly have the right to demand that no
one interfere in the internal affairs of their government or disrupt their
social order. As sovereign nations, they are entitled to manage their own
affairs, to fashion their own policies, and to choose their own form of
government. In other words, what is needed is mutual cooperation among nations,
freely undertaken, where each enjoys equal dignity and can help to shape a world
community truly worthy of man.
An Urgent Task
55. This task might seem impossible in those regions where the daily
struggle for subsistence absorbs the attention of the family, where people are
at a loss to find work that might improve their lot during their remaining days
on earth. These people must be given every possible help; they must be
encouraged to take steps for their own betterment and to seek out the means that
will enable them to do so. This common task undoubtedly calls for concerted,
continuing and courageous effort. But let there be no doubt about it, it is an
urgent task. The very life of needy nations, civil peace in the developing
countries, and world peace itself are at stake.
Equity in Trade Relations
56. Efforts are being made to help the developing nations financially and
technologically. Some of these efforts are considerable. Yet all these efforts
will prove to be vain and useless, if their results are nullified to a large
extent by the unstable trade relations between rich and poor nations. The latter
will have no grounds for hope or trust if they fear that what is being given
them with one hand is being taken away with the other.
57. Highly industrialized nations export their own manufactured products,
for the most part. Less developed nations, on the other hand, have nothing to
sell but raw materials and agricultural crops. As a result of technical
progress, the price of manufactured products is rising rapidly and they find a
ready market. But the basic crops and raw materials produced by the less
developed countries are subject to sudden and wide-ranging shifts in market
price; they do not share in the growing market value of industrial products.
This poses serious difficulties to the developing nations. They depend on
exports to a large extent for a balanced economy and for further steps toward
development. Thus the needy nations grow more destitute, while the rich nations
become even richer.
Free Trade Concept Inadequate
58. It is evident that the principle of free trade, by itself, is no longer
adequate for regulating international agreements. It certainly can work when
both parties are about equal economically; in such cases it stimulates progress
and rewards effort. That is why industrially developed nations see an element of
justice in this principle.
But the case is quite different when the nations involved are far from
equal. Market prices that are freely agreed upon can turn out to be most unfair.
It must be avowed openly that, in this case, the fundamental tenet of liberalism
(as it is called), as the norm for market dealings, is open to serious question.
Justice at Every Level
59. The teaching set forth by Our predecessor Leo XIII in
Rerum Novarum is
still valid today: when two parties are in very unequal positions, their mutual
consent alone does not guarantee a fair contract; the rule of free consent
remains subservient to the demands of the natural law. (57) In
this principle was set down with regard to a just wage for the individual
worker; but it should be applied with equal force to contracts made between
nations: trade relations can no longer be based solely on the principle of free,
unchecked competition, for it very often creates an economic dictatorship. Free
trade can be called just only when it conforms to the demands of social justice.
60. As a matter of fact, the highly developed nations have already come to
realize this. At times they take appropriate measures to restore balance to
their own economy, a balance which is frequently upset by competition when left
to itself. Thus it happens that these nations often support their agriculture at
the price of sacrifices imposed on economically more favored sectors. Similarly,
to maintain the commercial relations which are developing among themselves,
especially within a common market, the financial, fiscal and social policy of
these nations tries to restore comparable opportunities to competing industries
which are not equally prospering.
One Standard for All
61. Now in this matter one standard should hold true for all. What applies
to national economies and to highly developed nations must also apply to trade
relations between rich and poor nations. Indeed, competition should not be
eliminated from trade transactions; but it must be kept within limits so that it
operates justly and fairly, and thus becomes a truly human endeavor.
Now in trade relations between the developing and the highly developed
economies there is a great disparity in their overall situation and in their
freedom of action. In order that international trade be human and moral, social
justice requires that it restore to the participants a certain equality of
opportunity. To be sure, this equality will not be attained at once, but we must
begin to work toward it now by injecting a certain amount of equality into
discussions and price talks.
Here again international agreements on a broad scale can help a great deal.
They could establish general norms for regulating prices, promoting production
facilities, and favoring certain infant industries. Isn't it plain to everyone
that such attempts to establish greater justice in international trade would be
of great benefit to the developing nations, and that they would produce lasting
The Obstacles of Nationalism
62. There are other obstacles to creation of a more just social order and to
the development of world solidarity: nationalism and racism. It is quite natural
that nations recently arrived at political independence should be quite jealous
of their new-found but fragile unity and make every effort to preserve it. It is
also quite natural for nations with a long-standing cultural tradition to be
proud of their traditional heritage. But this commendable attitude should be
further ennobled by love, a love for the whole family of man. Haughty pride in
one's own nation disunites nations and poses obstacles to their true welfare. It
is especially harmful where the weak state of the economy calls for a pooling of
information, efforts and financial resources to implement programs of
development and to increase commercial and cultural interchange. . . . and
63. Racism is not the exclusive attribute of young nations, where sometimes
it hides beneath the rivalries of clans and political parties, with heavy losses
for justice and at the risk of civil war. During the colonial period it often
flared up between the colonists and the indigenous population, and stood in the
way of mutually profitable understanding, often giving rise to bitterness in the
wake of genuine injustices. It is still an obstacle to collaboration among
disadvantaged nations and a cause of division and hatred within countries
whenever individuals and families see the inviolable rights of the human person
held in scorn, as they themselves are unjustly subjected to a regime of
discrimination because of their race or their color.
Hopes for the Future
64. This state of affairs, which bodes ill for the future, causes Us great
distress and anguish. But We cherish this hope: that distrust and selfishness
among nations will eventually be overcome by a stronger desire for mutual
collaboration and a heightened sense of solidarity. We hope that the developing
nations will take advantage of their geographical proximity to one another to
organize on a broader territorial base and to pool their efforts for the
development of a given region. We hope that they will draw up joint programs,
coordinate investment funds wisely, divide production quotas fairly, and
exercise management over the marketing of these products. We also hope that
multilateral and broad international associations will undertake the necessary
work of organization to find ways of helping needy nations, so that these
nations may escape from the fetters now binding them; so that they themselves
may discover the road to cultural and social progress, while remaining faithful
to the native genius of their land.
The Artisans of Destiny
65. That is the goal toward which we must work. An ever more effective world
solidarity should allow all peoples to become the artisans of their destiny. Up
to now relations between nations have too often been governed by force; indeed,
that is the hallmark of past history.
May the day come when international relationships will be characterized by
respect and friendship, when mutual cooperation will be the hallmark of
collaborative efforts, and when concerted effort for the betterment of all
nations will be regarded as a duty by every nation. The developing nations now
emerging are asking that they be allowed to take part in the construction of a
better world, a world which would provide better protection for every man's
rights and duties. It is certainly a legitimate demand, so everyone must heed
and fulfill it.
Worldwide Brotherly Love
66. Human society is sorely ill. The cause is not so much the depletion of
natural resources, nor their monopolistic control by a privileged few; it is
rather the weakening of brotherly ties between individuals and nations.
Welcoming the Stranger
67. We cannot insist too much on the duty of giving foreigners a hospitable
reception. It is a duty imposed by human solidarity and by Christian charity,
and it is incumbent upon families and educational institutions in the host
Young people, in particular, must be given a warm reception; more and more
families and hostels must open their doors to them. This must be done, first of
all, that they may be shielded from feelings of loneliness, distress and despair
that would sap their strength. It is also necessary so that they may be guarded
against the corrupting influence of their new surroundings, where the contrast
between the dire poverty of their homeland and the lavish luxury of their
present surroundings is, as it were, forced upon them. And finally, it must be
done so that they may be protected from subversive notions and temptations to
violence, which gain headway in their minds when they ponder their "wretched
plight.'' (58) In short, they should be welcomed in the spirit of brotherly
love, so that the concrete example of wholesome living may give them a high
opinion of authentic Christian charity and of spiritual values.
68. We are deeply distressed by what happens to many of these young people.
They come to wealthier nations to acquire scientific knowledge, professional
training, and a high-quality education that will enable them to serve their own
land with greater effectiveness. They do get a fine education, but very often
they lose their respect for the priceless cultural heritage of their native
69. Emigrant workers should also be given a warm welcome. Their living
conditions are often inhuman, and they must scrimp on their earnings in order to
send help to their families who have remained behind in their native land in
A Social Sense
70. We would also say a word to those who travel to newly industrialized
nations for business purposes: industrialists, merchants, managers and
representatives of large business concerns. It often happens that in their own
land they do not lack a social sense. Why is it, then, that they give in to
baser motives of self-interest when they set out to do business in the
developing countries? Their more favored position should rather spur them on to
be initiators of social progress and human betterment in these lands. Their
organizational experience should help them to figure out ways to make
intelligent use of the labor of the indigenous population, to develop skilled
workers, to train engineers and other management men, to foster these people's
initiative and prepare them for offices of ever greater responsibility. In this
way they will prepare these people to take over the burden of management in the
In the meantime, justice must prevail in dealings between superiors and
their subordinates. Legitimate contracts should govern these employment
relations, spelling out the duties involved. And no one, whatever his status may
be, should be unjustly subjected to the arbitrary whim of another.
71. We certainly rejoice over the fact that an ever increasing number of
experts are being sent on development missions by private groups, bilateral
associations and international organizations. These specialists must not "act
as overlords, but as helpers and fellow workers.'' (59) The people of a country
soon discover whether their new helpers are motivated by good will or not,
whether they want to enhance human dignity or merely try out their special
techniques. The expert's message will surely be rejected by these people if it
is not inspired by brotherly love.
The Role of Experts
72. Technical expertise is necessary, but it must be accompanied by concrete
signs of genuine love. Untainted by overbearing nationalistic pride or any trace
of racial discrimination, experts should learn how to work in collaboration with
everyone. They must realize that their expert knowledge does not give them
superiority in every sphere of life. The culture which shaped their living
habits does contain certain universal human elements; but it cannot be regarded
as the only culture, nor can it regard other cultures with haughty disdain. If
it is introduced into foreign lands, it must undergo adaptation.
Thus those who undertake such work must realize they are guests in a foreign
land; they must see to it that they studiously observe its historical
traditions, its rich culture, and its peculiar genius. A rapprochement between
cultures will thus take place, bringing benefits to both sides.
Service to the World
73. Sincere dialogue between cultures, as between individuals, paves the way
for ties of brotherhood. Plans proposed for man's betterment will unite all
nations in the joint effort to be undertaken, if every citizenbe he a
government leader, a public official, or a simple workmanis motivated by
brotherly love and is truly anxious to build one universal human civilization
that spans the globe. Then we shall see the start of a dialogue on man rather
than on the products of the soil or of technology.
This dialogue will be fruitful if it shows the participants how to make
economic progress and how to achieve spiritual growth as well; if the
technicians take the role of teachers and educators; if the training provided is
characterized by a concern for spiritual and moral values, so that it ensures
human betterment as well as economic growth. Then the bonds of solidarity will
endure, even when the aid programs are past and gone. It is not plain to all
that closer ties of this sort will contribute immeasurably to the preservation
of world peace?
An Appeal to Youth
74. We are fully aware of the fact that many young people have already
responded wholeheartedly to the invitation of Our predecessor
summoning the laity to take part in missionary work. (60) We also know that
other young people have offered their services to public and private
organizations that seek to aid developing nations. We are delighted to learn
that in some nations their requirement of military duty can be fulfilled, in
part at least, by social service or, simply, service. We commend such
undertakings and the men of good will who take part in them. Would that all
those who profess to be followers of Christ might heed His plea: "I was
hungry and you gave me to eat; I was thirsty and you gave me to drink; I was a
stranger and you took me in; naked and you covered me; sick and you visited me;
I was in prison and you came to me." (61)
No one is permitted to disregard the plight of his brothers living in dire
poverty, enmeshed in ignorance and tormented by insecurity. The Christian, moved
by this sad state of affairs, should echo the words of Christ: "I have
compassion on the crowd." (62)
Prayer and Action
75. Let everyone implore God the Father Almighty that the human race, which
is certainly aware of these evils, will bend every effort of mind and spirit to
their eradication. To this prayer should be added the resolute commitment of
every individual. Each should do as much as he can, as best he can, to
counteract the slow pace of progress in some nations. And it is to be hoped that
individuals, social organizations and nations will join hands in brotherly
fashionthe strong aiding the weakall contributing their knowledge,
their enthusiasm and their love to the task, without thinking of their own
It is the person who is motivated by genuine love, more than anyone else,
who pits his intelligence against the problems of poverty, trying to uncover the
causes and looking for effective ways of combatting and overcoming them. As a
promoter of peace, "he goes on his way, holding aloft the torch of joy and
shedding light and grace on the hearts of men all over the world; he helps them
to cross the barriers of geographical frontiers, to acknowledge every man as a
friend and brother." (63)
Development, the New Name for Peace
76. Extreme disparity between nations in economic, social and educational
levels provokes jealousy and discord, often putting peace in jeopardy. As We
told the Council Fathers on Our return from the United Nations: "We have to
devote our attention to the situation of those nations still striving to
advance. What We mean, to put it in clearer words, is that our charity toward
the poor, of whom there are countless numbers in the world, has to become more
solicitous, more effective, more generous." (64)
When we fight poverty and oppose the unfair conditions of the present, we
are not just promoting human well-being; we are also furthering man's spiritual
and moral development, and hence we are benefiting the whole human race. For
peace is not simply the absence of warfare, based on a precarious balance of
power; it is fashioned by efforts directed day after day toward the
establishment of the ordered universe willed by God, with a more perfect form of
justice among men. (65)
77. Nations are the architects of their own development, and they must bear
the burden of this work; but they cannot accomplish it if they live in isolation
from others. Regional mutual aid agreements among the poorer nations,
broader based programs of support for these nations, major alliances between
nations to coordinate these activitiesthese are the road signs that point
the way to national development and world peace.
Toward an Effective World Authority
78. Such international collaboration among the nations of the world
certainly calls for institutions that will promote, coordinate and direct it,
until a new juridical order is firmly established and fully ratified. We give
willing and wholehearted support to those public organizations that have already
joined in promoting the development of nations, and We ardently hope that they
will enjoy ever growing authority. As We told the United Nations General
Assembly in New York: "Your vocation is to bring not just some peoples but
all peoples together as brothers. . . Who can fail to see the need and
importance of thus gradually coming to the establishment of a world authority
capable of taking effective action on the juridical and political planes?"
Hope for the Future
79. Some would regard these hopes as vain flights of fancy. It may be that
these people are not realistic enough, and that they have not noticed that the
world is moving rapidly in a certain direction. Men are growing more anxious to
establish closer ties of brotherhood; despite their ignorance, their mistakes,
their offenses, and even their lapses into barbarism and their wanderings from
the path of salvation, they are slowly making their way to the Creator, even
without adverting to it.
This struggle toward a more human way of life certainly calls for hard work
and imposes difficult sacrifices. But even adversity, when endured for the sake
of one's brothers and out of love for them, can contribute greatly to human
progress. The Christian knows full well that when he unites himself with the
expiatory sacrifice of the Divine Savior, he helps greatly to build up the body
of Christ, (67) to assemble the People of God into the fullness of Christ.
A Final Appeal
80. We must travel this road together, united in minds and hearts. Hence We
feel it necessary to remind everyone of the seriousness of this issue in all its
dimensions, and to impress upon them the need for action. The moment for action
has reached a critical juncture. Can countless innocent children be saved? Can
countless destitute families obtain more human living conditions? Can world
peace and human civilization be preserved intact? Every individual and every
nation must face up to this issue, for it is their problem.
81. We appeal, first of all, to Our sons. In the developing nations and in
other countries lay people must consider it their task to improve the temporal
order. While the hierarchy has the role of teaching and authoritatively
interpreting the moral laws and precepts that apply in this matter, the laity
have the duty of using their own initiative and taking action in this areawithout
waiting passively for directives and precepts from others. They must try to
infuse a Christian spirit into people's mental outlook and daily behavior, into
the laws and structures of the civil community. (68) Changes must be made;
present conditions must be improved. And the transformations must be permeated
with the spirit of the Gospel.
We especially urge Catholic men living in developed nations to offer their
skills and earnest assistance to public and private organizations, both civil
and religious, working to solve the problems of developing nations. They will
surely want to be in the first ranks of those who spare no effort to have just
and fair laws, based on moral precepts, established among all nations.
To Other Christians and Believers
82. All Our Christian brothers, We are sure will want to consolidate and
expand their collaborative efforts to reduce man's immoderate self-love and
haughty pride, to eliminate quarrels and rivalries, and to repress demagoguery
and injusticeso that a more human way of living is opened to all, with
each man helping others out of brotherly love.
Furthermore, We still remember with deep affection the dialogue We had with
various non Christian individuals and communities in Bombay. So once again We
ask these brothers of Ours to do all in their power to promote living conditions
truly worthy of the children of God.
To All Men of Good Will
83. Finally, We look to all men of good will, reminding them that civil
progress and economic development are the only road to peace. Delegates to
international organizations, public officials, gentlemen of the press, teachers
and educatorsall of you must realize that you have your part to play in
the construction of a new world order. We ask God to enlighten and strengthen
you all, so that you may persuade all men to turn their attention to these grave
questions and prompt nations to work toward their solution .
Educators, you should resolve to inspire young people with a love for the
needy nations. Gentlemen of the press, your job is to place before our eyes the
initiatives that are being taken to promote mutual aid, and the tragic spectacle
of misery and poverty that people tend to ignore in order to salve their
consciences. Thus at least the wealthy will know that the poor stand outside
their doors waiting to receive some leftovers from their banquets.
To Government Authorities
84. Government leaders, your task is to draw your communities into closer
ties of solidarity with all men, and to convince them that they must accept the
necessary taxes on their luxuries and their wasteful expenditures in order to
promote the development of nations and the preservation of peace. Delegates to
international organizations, it is largely your task to see to it that senseless
arms races and dangerous power plays give way to mutual collaboration between
nations, a collaboration that is friendly, peace oriented, and divested of
self-interest, a collaboration that contributes greatly to the common
development of mankind and allows the individual to find fulfillment.
To Thoughtful Men
85. It must be admitted that men very often find themselves in a sad state
because they do not give enough thought and consideration to these things. So We
call upon men of deep thought and wisdomCatholics and Christians,
believers in God and devotees of truth and justice, all men of good willto
take as their own Christ's injunction, "Seek and you shall find." (69)
Blaze the trails to mutual cooperation among men, to deeper knowledge and more
widespread charity, to a way of life marked by true brotherhood, to a human
society based on mutual harmony.
To All Promoters of Development
86. Finally, a word to those of you who have heard the cries of needy
nations and have come to their aid. We consider you the promoters and apostles
of genuine progress and true development. Genuine progress does not consist in
wealth sought for personal comfort or for its own sake; rather it consists in an
economic order designed for the welfare of the human person, where the daily
bread that each man receives reflects the glow of brotherly love and the helping
hand of God.
87. We bless you with all Our heart, and We call upon all men of good will
to join forces with you as a band of brothers. Knowing, as we all do, that
development means peace these days, what man would not want to work for it with
every ounce of his strength? No one, of course. So We beseech all of you to
respond wholeheartedly to Our urgent plea, in the name of the Lord.
Given at Rome, at St. Peter's, on the feast of the Resurrection, March 26,
1967, in the fourth year of Our pontificate.
LATIN TEXT: Acta Apostolicae Sedis, 59 (1967), 257-99.
ENGLISH TRANSLATION: The Pope Speaks, 12 (Spring, 1967), 144-72.
(1) Cf. Acta Leonis XIII, 11 (1892), 97-148.
(2) Cf. AAS 23 (1931), 177-228.
(3) Cf., for example, Radio message of June 1, 1941, on the 50th
anniversary of Leo XIII's Encyclical letter
Rerum Novarum: AAS 33
(1941), 195-205; Radio message, Christmas 1942: AAS 35 (1943), 9-24; Allocution
to Italian Catholic Workers Association, meeting to commemorate
Rerum Novarum, May 14, 1953: AAS 45 (1953), 402-408.
(4) Cf. AAS 53 (1961), 401-464.
(5) Cf. AAS 55 (1963), 257-304.
14. (6) Cf. Encyc. letter
Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 440.
15. (7) Cf.
Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the World
of Today, no. 63: AAS 58 (1966), 1084 [cf. TPS XI, 302].
(8) Apostolic letter motu proprio, Catholicam Christi Ecclesiam:
AAS 59 (1967), 27 [cf. v. 12 of TPS, 103-106].
(9) Cf. Leo XIII, Encyc. letter
Rerum Novarum: Acta Leonis XIII,
11 (1892), 98.
Church in the World
of Today, no. 63: AAS 58 (1966),1085
[cf. TPS XI, 302].
(11) Cf. Lk 7, 22.
Church in the World
no. 3: AAS 58 (1966), 1026
[cf. TPS XI, 261].
(13) Cf. Leo XIII, Encyc. letter Immortale Dei: Acta Leonis
XIII 5 (1885), 127.
Church in the World
of Today, no. 4: AAS 58 (1966), 1027 [cf.
TPS XI, 261].
(15) Cf. L. J. Lebret, O.P., Dynamique concrète du développement
Paris: Economie et Humanisme, Les editions ouvrierès (1961), 28.
(16) 2 Thes 3. 10.
(17) Cf., for example, J. Maritain, Les conditions spintuelles du progrès
et de la paix, in an anthology entitled Rencontre des cultures à
l'UNESCO sous le signe du Concile Oecuménique Vatican II, Paris: Mame
(18) Cf. Mt 5. 3.
(19) Gn 1. 28.
Church in the World
of Today, no. 69: AAS 58 (1966), 1090 [cf.
TPS XI, 306].
(21) 1 Jn 3. 17.
(22) De Nabute, c. 12, n. 53: PL 14. 747; cf. J. R. Palanque, Saint
Ambroise et l'empire romain, Paris: de Boccard (1933), 336 ff.
16. (23) Letter to the 52nd Social Week at Brest, in L'homme et la révolution
urbaine, Lyon: Chronique sociale (1965), 8-9.
Church in the World
of Today, no. 71: AAS 58 (1966), 1093
[cf. TPS XI, 308].
(25) Ibid., no. 65: AAS 58 (1966), 1086 [cf. TPS XI, 303].
Ouadragesimo anno: AAS 23 (1931), 212.
(27) Cf., for example, Colin Clark, The Conditions of Economic Progress,
3rd ed., New York: St. Martin's Press (1960), 3-6.
(28) Letter to the 51st Social Week at Lyon, in Le travail et les
travailleurs dans la societé contemporaine, Lyon: Chronique sociale
(29) Cf., for example, M. D. Chenu, O.P., Pour une théologie du
travail, Paris: Editions du Seuil (1955) [Eng. tr. The Theology of Work,
Dublin: Gill, 1963].
Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 423 [cf. TPS
(31) Cf., for example, O. von Nell-Breuning, S.J., Wirtschaft und
Gesellschaft, vol. 1: Grundfragen, Freiburg: Herder (1956), 183-184.
(32) Eph 4. 13.
(33) Cf., for example, Emmanuel Larrain Errázuriz, Bishop of Talca,
Chile, President of CELAM, Lettre pastorale sur le développement et
la paix, Paris: Pax Christi (1965).
Church in the World
of Today, no. 26: AAS 58 (1966), 1046 [TPS
(35) John XXIII, Encyc.letter
Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961),
(36) L'Osservatore Romano, Sept. 11, 1965; La Documentation
Catholique, 62 (1965), 1674-1675.
(37) Cf. Mt 19. 6.
Church in the World
of Today, no. 52: AAS 58 (1966), 1073 [cf.
TPS XI, 294].
(39) Ibid., nos. 50-51, with note 14: AAS 58 (1966), 1070-1073 [cf.
TPS XI, 292-293]; also no. 87, p. 1110 [cf. TPS XI, 319-320].
(40) Cf. ibid., no. 15: AAS 58 (1966), 1036 [cf. TPS XI, 268].
(41) Mt 16. 26.
Church in the World
of Today, no. 57: AAS 58 (1966), 1078 [cf.
TPS XI, 297].
(43) Ibid., no. 19: AAS 58 (1966), 1039 [cf. TPS XI, 270].
(44) Cf., for example, J. Maritain, L'humanisme intégral,
Paris: Aubier (1936) [Eng. tr. True Humanism, New York: Charles
Scribner's Sons (1938)].
(45) Cf. H. de Lubac, S.J., Le drame de l'humanisme athée,
3rd ed., Paris: Spes (1945), 10 [Eng. tr. The Drama of Atheistic Humanism,
London: Sheed and Ward (1949), 7]
(46) Pensées, ed. Brunschvicg, n. 434; cf. Maurice Zundel, L'homme
passe l'homme, Le Caire: Editions du lien (1944).
(47) Cf. Address to representatives of non-Christian religions, Dec. 3,
1964: AAS 57 (1965), 132 [cf. TPS X, 153].
(48) Jas 2. 15-16.
(49) Cf. Encyc.letter
Mater et Magistra
AAS 53 (1961), 440 ff.
(50) Cf. Christmas message, December 1963: AAS 56 (1964), 57-58.
(51) Cf. Encicliche e discorsi di Paolo VI, vol. IX: ed. Paoline,
Rome (1966), 132-136.
(52) Cf. Lk 16. 19-31.
Church in the World
of Today, no. 86: AAS 58 (1966) 1109
[cf. TPS XI, 319].
19. (54) Lk 12. 20.
(55) Special message to the world, delivered to newsmen during India visit,
December 4, 1964: AAS 57 (1965), 135 [cf. TPS X, 158- 159].
(56) Cf. AAS 56 (1964), 639 ff. [cf. TPS X, 275 ff.].
(57) Cf. Acta Leonis XIII, 11 (1892), 131.
(58) Cf. Leo XIII, Encyc.letter
Rerum Novarum: Acta Leonis XIII,
11 (1892), 98.
(59) Church in the World of Today, no. 85: AAS 58 (1966), 1108 [cf.
TPS XI, 318].
(60) Cf. encyc.letter Fidei donum: AAS 49 (1957), 246.
(61) Mt 25. 35-36.
(62) Mk 8. 2.
(63) John XXIII, Address upon receiving the Balzan Peace Prize, May 10,
1963: AAS 55 (1963), 455.
(64) AAS 57 (1965), 896 [cf. TPS XI, 64].
(65) Cf. John XXIII, encyc.letter
in Terris: AAS 55 (1963),
(66) AAS 57 (1965), 880 [cf. TPS XI, 51].
(67) Eph 4. 12. Cf. Second Vatican Council,
Constitution on the Church, no. 13: AAS 57 (1965), 17 [cf. TPS ^X, 367-68].
(68) Cf. Second Vatican Council,
Decree on the Apostolate of the Laity,
nos. 7, 13, 24: AAS 58 (1966), 843, 849, 856 [cf. TPS XI, 125, 130, 135].
(69) Lk ll.9.