1. A sense of the dignity of the human person has been impressing itself more
and more deeply on the consciousness of contemporary man,(1) and the demand is
increasingly made that men should act on their own judgment, enjoying and making
use of a responsible freedom, not driven by coercion but motivated by a sense of
duty. The demand is likewise made that constitutional limits should be set to
the powers of government, in order that there may be no encroachment on the
rightful freedom of the person and of associations. This demand for freedom in
human society chiefly regards the quest for the values proper to the human
spirit. It regards, in the first place, the free exercise of religion in
society. This Vatican Council takes careful note of these desires in the minds
of men. It proposes to declare them to be greatly in accord with truth and
justice. To this end, it searches into the sacred tradition and doctrine of the
Church-the treasury out of which the Church continually brings forth new things
that are in harmony with the things that are old.
First, the council professes its belief that God Himself has made known to
mankind the way in which men are to serve Him, and thus be saved in Christ and
come to blessedness. We believe that this one true religion subsists in the
Catholic and Apostolic Church, to which the Lord Jesus committed the duty of
spreading it abroad among all men. Thus He spoke to the Apostles: "Go,
therefore, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the
Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all
things whatsoever I have enjoined upon you" (Matt. 28: 19-20). On their part,
all men are bound to seek the truth, especially in what concerns God and His
Church, and to embrace the truth they come to know, and to hold fast to it.
This Vatican Council likewise professes its belief that it is upon the human
conscience that these obligations fall and exert their binding force. The truth
cannot impose itself except by virtue of its own truth, as it makes its entrance
into the mind at once quietly and with power.
Religious freedom, in turn, which men demand as necessary to fulfill their
duty to worship God, has to do with immunity from coercion in civil society.
Therefore it leaves untouched traditional Catholic doctrine on the moral duty of
men and societies toward the true religion and toward the one Church of Christ.
Over and above all this, the council intends to develop the doctrine of
recent popes on the inviolable rights of the human person and the constitutional
order of society.
2. This Vatican Council declares that the human person has a right to
religious freedom. This freedom means that all men are to be immune from
coercion on the part of individuals or of social groups and of any human power,
in such wise that no one is to be forced to act in a manner contrary to his own
beliefs, whether privately or publicly, whether alone or in association with
others, within due limits.
The council further declares that the right to religious freedom has its
foundation in the very dignity of the human person as this dignity is known
through the revealed word of God and by reason itself.(2) This right of the
human person to religious freedom is to be recognized in the constitutional law
whereby society is governed and thus it is to become a civil right.
It is in accordance with their dignity as persons-that is, beings endowed
with reason and free will and therefore privileged to bear personal
responsibility-that all men should be at once impelled by nature and also bound
by a moral obligation to seek the truth, especially religious truth. They are
also bound to adhere to the truth, once it is known, and to order their whole
lives in accord with the demands of truth. However, men cannot discharge these
obligations in a manner in keeping with their own nature unless they enjoy
immunity from external coercion as well as psychological freedom. Therefore the
right to religious freedom has its foundation not in the subjective disposition
of the person, but in his very nature. In consequence, the right to this
immunity continues to exist even in those who do not live up to their obligation
of seeking the truth and adhering to it and the exercise of this right is not to
be impeded, provided that just public order be observed.
3. Further light is shed on the subject if one considers that the highest
norm of human life is the divine law-eternal, objective and universal-whereby
God orders, directs and governs the entire universe and all the ways of the
human community by a plan conceived in wisdom and love. Man has been made by God
to participate in this law, with the result that, under the gentle disposition
of divine Providence, he can come to perceive ever more fully the truth that is
unchanging. Wherefore every man has the duty, and therefore the right, to seek
the truth in matters religious in order that he may with prudence form for
himself right and true judgments of conscience, under use of all suitable means.
Truth, however, is to be sought after in a manner proper to the dignity of
the human person and his social nature. The inquiry is to be free, carried on
with the aid of teaching or instruction, communication and dialogue, in the
course of which men explain to one another the truth they have discovered, or
think they have discovered, in order thus to assist one another in the quest for
Moreover, as the truth is discovered, it is by a personal assent that men are
to adhere to it.
On his part, man perceives and acknowledges the imperatives of the divine law
through the mediation of conscience. In all his activity a man is bound to
follow his conscience in order that he may come to God, the end and purpose of
life. It follows that he is not to be forced to act in a manner contrary to his
conscience. Nor, on the other hand, is he to be restrained from acting in
accordance with his conscience, especially in matters religious. The reason is
that the exercise of religion, of its very nature, consists before all else in
those internal, voluntary and free acts whereby man sets the course of his life
directly toward God. No merely human power can either command or prohibit acts
of this kind.(3) The social nature of man, however, itself requires that he
should give external expression to his internal acts of religion: that he should
share with others in matters religious; that he should profess his religion in
community. Injury therefore is done to the human person and to the very order
established by God for human life, if the free exercise of religion is denied in
society, provided just public order is observed.
There is a further consideration. The religious acts whereby men, in private
and in public and out of a sense of personal conviction, direct their lives to
God transcend by their very nature the order of terrestrial and temporal
affairs. Government therefore ought indeed to take account of the religious life
of the citizenry and show it favor, since the function of government is to make
provision for the common welfare. However, it would clearly transgress the
limits set to its power, were it to presume to command or inhibit acts that are
4. The freedom or immunity from coercion in matters religious which is the
endowment of persons as individuals is also to be recognized as their right when
they act in community. Religious communities are a requirement of the social
nature both of man and of religion itself.
Provided the just demands of public order are observed, religious communities
rightfully claim freedom in order that they may govern themselves according to
their own norms, honor the Supreme Being in public worship, assist their members
in the practice of the religious life, strengthen them by instruction, and
promote institutions in which they may join together for the purpose of ordering
their own lives in accordance with their religious principles.
Religious communities also have the right not to be hindered, either by legal
measures or by administrative action on the part of government, in the
selection, training, appointment, and transferral of their own ministers, in
communicating with religious authorities and communities abroad, in erecting
buildings for religious purposes, and in the acquisition and use of suitable
funds or properties.
Religious communities also have the right not to be hindered in their public
teaching and witness to their faith, whether by the spoken or by the written
word. However, in spreading religious faith and in introducing religious
practices everyone ought at all times to refrain from any manner of action which
might seem to carry a hint of coercion or of a kind of persuasion that would be
dishonorable or unworthy, especially when dealing with poor or uneducated
people. Such a manner of action would have to be considered an abuse of one's
right and a violation of the right of others.
In addition, it comes within the meaning of religious freedom that religious
communities should not be prohibited from freely undertaking to show the special
value of their doctrine in what concerns the organization of society and the
inspiration of the whole of human activity. Finally, the social nature of man
and the very nature of religion afford the foundation of the right of men freely
to hold meetings and to establish educational, cultural, charitable and social
organizations, under the impulse of their own religious sense.
5. The family, since it is a society in its own original right, has the right
freely to live its own domestic religious life under the guidance of parents.
Parents, moreover, have the right to determine, in accordance with their own
religious beliefs, the kind of religious education that their children are to
receive. Government, in consequence, must acknowledge the right of parents to
make a genuinely free choice of schools and of other means of education, and the
use of this freedom of choice is not to be made a reason for imposing unjust
burdens on parents, whether directly or indirectly. Besides, the right of
parents are violated, if their children are forced to attend lessons or
instructions which are not in agreement with their religious beliefs, or if a
single system of education, from which all religious formation is excluded, is
imposed upon all.
6. Since the common welfare of society consists in the entirety of those
conditions of social life under which men enjoy the possibility of achieving
their own perfection in a certain fullness of measure and also with some
relative ease, it chiefly consists in the protection of the rights, and in the
performance of the duties, of the human person.(4) Therefore the care of the
right to religious freedom devolves upon the whole citizenry, upon social
groups, upon government, and upon the Church and other religious communities, in
virtue of the duty of all toward the common welfare, and in the manner proper to
The protection and promotion of the inviolable rights of man ranks among the
essential duties of government.(5) Therefore government is to assume the
safeguard of the religious freedom of all its citizens, in an effective manner,
by just laws and by other appropriate means.
Government is also to help create conditions favorable to the fostering of
religious life, in order that the people may be truly enabled to exercise their
religious rights and to fulfill their religious duties, and also in order that
society itself may profit by the moral qualities of justice and peace which have
their origin in men's faithfulness to God and to His holy will. (6)
If, in view of peculiar circumstances obtaining among peoples, special civil
recognition is given to one religious community in the constitutional order of
society, it is at the same time imperative that the right of all citizens and
religious communities to religious freedom should be recognized and made
effective in practice.
Finally, government is to see to it that equality of citizens before the law,
which is itself an element of the common good, is never violated, whether openly
or covertly, for religious reasons. Nor is there to be discrimination among
It follows that a wrong is done when government imposes upon its people, by
force or fear or other means, the profession or repudiation of any religion, or
when it hinders men from joining or leaving a religious community. All the more
is it a violation of the will of God and of the sacred rights of the person and
the family of nations when force is brought to bear in any way in order to
destroy or repress religion, either in the whole of mankind or in a particular
country or in a definite community.
7. The right to religious freedom is exercised in human society: hence its
exercise is subject to certain regulatory norms. In the use of all freedoms the
moral principle of personal and social responsibility is to be observed. In the
exercise of their rights, individual men and social groups are bound by the
moral law to have respect both for the rights of others and for their own duties
toward others and for the common welfare of all. Men are to deal with their
fellows in justice and civility.
Furthermore, society has the right to defend itself against possible abuses
committed on the pretext of freedom of religion. It is the special duty of
government to provide this protection. However, government is not to act in an
arbitrary fashion or in an unfair spirit of partisanship. Its action is to be
controlled by juridical norms which are in conformity with the objective moral
order. These norms arise out of the need for the effective safeguard of the
rights of all citizens and for the peaceful settlement of conflicts of rights,
also out of the need for an adequate care of genuine public peace, which comes
about when men live together in good order and in true justice, and finally out
of the need for a proper guardianship of public morality.
These matters constitute the basic component of the common welfare: they are
what is meant by public order. For the rest, the usages of society are to be the
usages of freedom in their full range: that is, the freedom of man is to be
respected as far as possible and is not to be curtailed except when and insofar
8. Many pressures are brought to bear upon the men of our day, to the point
where the danger arises lest they lose the possibility of acting on their own
judgment. On the other hand, not a few can be found who seem inclined to use the
name of freedom as the pretext for refusing to submit to authority and for
making light of the duty of obedience. Wherefore this Vatican Council urges
everyone, especially those who are charged with the task of educating others, to
do their utmost to form men who, on the one hand, will respect the moral order
and be obedient to lawful authority, and on the other hand, will be lovers of
true freedom-men, in other words, who will come to decisions on their own
judgment and in the light of truth, govern their activities with a sense of
responsibility, and strive after what is true and right, willing always to join
with others in cooperative effort.
Religious freedom therefore ought to have this further purpose and aim,
namely, that men may come to act with greater responsibility in fulfilling their
duties in community life.
9. The declaration of this Vatican Council on the right of man to religious
freedom has its foundation in the dignity of the person, whose exigencies have
come to be are fully known to human reason through centuries of experience. What
is more, this doctrine of freedom has roots in divine revelation, and for this
reason Christians are bound to respect it all the more conscientiously.
Revelation does not indeed affirm in so many words the right of man to immunity
from external coercion in matters religious. It does, however, disclose the
dignity of the human person in its full dimensions. It gives evidence of the
respect which Christ showed toward the freedom with which man is to fulfill his
duty of belief in the word of God and it gives us lessons in the spirit which
disciples of such a Master ought to adopt and continually follow. Thus further
light is cast upon the general principles upon which the doctrine of this
declaration on religious freedom is based. In particular, religious freedom in
society is entirely consonant with the freedom of the act of Christian faith.
10. It is one of the major tenets of Catholic doctrine that man's response to
God in faith must be free: no one therefore is to be forced to embrace the
Christian faith against his own will.(8) This doctrine is contained in the word
of God and it was constantly proclaimed by the Fathers of the Church.(7) The act
of faith is of its very nature a free act. Man, redeemed by Christ the Savior
and through Christ Jesus called to be God's adopted son,(9) cannot give his
adherence to God revealing Himself unless, under the drawing of the Father,(10)
he offers to God the reasonable and free submission of faith. It is therefore
completely in accord with the nature of faith that in matters religious every
manner of coercion on the part of men should be excluded. In consequence, the
principle of religious freedom makes no small contribution to the creation of an
environment in which men can without hindrance be invited to the Christian
faith, embrace it of their own free will, and profess it effectively in their
whole manner of life.
11. God calls men to serve Him in spirit and in truth, hence they are bound
in conscience but they stand under no compulsion. God has regard for the dignity
of the human person whom He Himself created and man is to be guided by his own
judgment and he is to enjoy freedom. This truth appears at its height in Christ
Jesus, in whom God manifested Himself and His ways with men. Christ is at once
our Master and our Lord(11) and also meek and humble of heart.(12) In attracting
and inviting His disciples He used patience.(13) He wrought miracles to
illuminate His teaching and to establish its truth, but His intention was to
rouse faith in His hearers and to confirm them in faith, not to exert coercion
upon them.(14) He did indeed denounce the unbelief of some who listened to Him,
but He left vengeance to God in expectation of the day of judgment.(15) When He
sent His Apostles into the world, He said to them: "He who believes and is
baptized will be saved. He who does not believe will be condemned" (Mark 16:16).
But He Himself, noting that the cockle had been sown amid the wheat, gave orders
that both should be allowed to grow until the harvest time, which will come at
the end of the world.(16) He refused to be a political messiah, ruling by
force:(17) He preferred to call Himself the Son of Man, who came "to serve and
to give his life as a ransom for the many" (Mark 10:45). He showed Himself the
perfect servant of God,(18) who "does not break the bruised reed nor extinguish
the smoking flax" (Matt. 12:20).
He acknowledged the power of government and its rights, when He commanded
that tribute be given to Caesar: but He gave clear warning that the higher
rights of God are to be kept inviolate: "Render to Caesar the things that are
Caesar's and to God the things that are God's" (Matt. 22:21). In the end, when
He completed on the cross the work of redemption whereby He achieved salvation
and true freedom for men, He brought His revelation to completion. For He bore
witness to the truth,(19) but He refused to impose the truth by force on those
who spoke against it. Not by force of blows does His rule assert its claims.(20)
It is established by witnessing to the truth and by hearing the truth, and it
extends its dominion by the love whereby Christ, lifted up on the cross, draws
all men to Himself.(21)
Taught by the word and example of Christ, the Apostles followed the same way.
From the very origins of the Church the disciples of Christ strove to convert
men to faith in Christ as the Lord; not, however, by the use of coercion or of
devices unworthy of the Gospel, but by the power, above all, of the word of
God.(22) Steadfastly they proclaimed to all the plan of God our Savior, "who
wills that all men should be saved and come to the acknowledgment of the truth"
(1 Tim. 2:4). At the same time, however, they showed respect for those of weaker
stuff, even though they were in error, and thus they made it plain that "each
one of us is to render to God an account of himself" (Romans 14:12),(23) and for
that reason is bound to obey his conscience. Like Christ Himself, the Apostles
were unceasingly bent upon bearing witness to the truth of God, and they showed
the fullest measure of boldness in "speaking the word with confidence" (Acts
4:31) (24) before the people and their rulers. With a firm faith they held that
the Gospel is indeed the power of God unto salvation for all who believe.(25)
Therefore they rejected all "carnal weapons:(26) they followed the example of
the gentleness and respectfulness of Christ and they preached the word of God in
the full confidence that there was resident in this word itself a divine power
able to destroy all the forces arrayed against God(27) and bring men to faith in
Christ and to His service.(28) As the Master, so too the Apostles recognized
legitimate civil authority. "For there is no power except from God", the Apostle
teaches, and thereafter commands: "Let everyone be subject to higher
authorities.... He who resists authority resists God's ordinance" (Romans
13:1-5).(29) At the same time, however, they did not hesitate to speak out
against governing powers which set themselves in opposition to the holy will of
God: "It is necessary to obey God rather than men" (Acts 5:29).(30) This is the
way along which the martyrs and other faithful have walked through all ages and
over all the earth.
12. In faithfulness therefore to the truth of the Gospel, the Church is
following the way of Christ and the apostles when she recognizes and gives
support to the principle of religious freedom as befitting the dignity of man
and as being in accord with divine revelation. Throughout the ages the Church
has kept safe and handed on the doctrine received from the Master and from the
apostles. In the life of the People of God, as it has made its pilgrim way
through the vicissitudes of human history, there has at times appeared a way of
acting that was hardly in accord with the spirit of the Gospel or even opposed
to it. Nevertheless, the doctrine of the Church that no one is to be coerced
into faith has always stood firm.
Thus the leaven of the Gospel has long been about its quiet work in the minds
of men, and to it is due in great measure the fact that in the course of time
men have come more widely to recognize their dignity as persons, and the
conviction has grown stronger that the person in society is to be kept free from
all manner of coercion in matters religious.
13. Among the things that concern the good of the Church and indeed the
welfare of society here on earth-things therefore that are always and everywhere
to be kept secure and defended against all injury-this certainly is preeminent,
namely, that the Church should enjoy that full measure of freedom which her care
for the salvation of men requires.(31) This is a sacred freedom, because the
only-begotten Son endowed with it the Church which He purchased with His blood.
Indeed it is so much the property of the Church that to act against it is to act
against the will of God. The freedom of the Church is the fundamental principle
in what concerns the relations between the Church and governments and the whole
In human society and in the face of government the Church claims freedom for
herself in her character as a spiritual authority, established by Christ the
Lord, upon which there rests, by divine mandate, the duty of going out into the
whole world and preaching the Gospel to every creature.(32) The Church also
claims freedom for herself in her character as a society of men who have the
right to live in society in accordance with the precepts of the Christian
In turn, where the principle of religious freedom is not only proclaimed in
words or simply incorporated in law but also given sincere and practical
application, there the Church succeeds in achieving a stable situation of right
as well as of fact and the independence which is necessary for the fulfillment
of her divine mission.
This independence is precisely what the authorities of the Church claim in
society.(34) At the same time, the Christian faithful, in common with all other
men, possess the civil right not to be hindered in leading their lives in
accordance with their consciences. Therefore, a harmony exists between the
freedom of the Church and the religious freedom which is to be recognized as the
right of all men and communities and sanctioned by constitutional law.
14. In order to be faithful to the divine command, "teach all nations" (Matt.
28:19-20), the Catholic Church must work with all urgency and concern "that the
word of God be spread abroad and glorified" (2 Thess. 3:1). Hence the Church
earnestly begs of its children that, "first of all, supplications, prayers,
petitions, acts of thanksgiving be made for all men.... For this is good and
agreeable in the sight of God our Savior, who wills that all men be saved and
come to the knowledge of the truth" (1 Tim. 2:1-4). In the formation of their
consciences, the Christian faithful ought carefully to attend to the sacred and
certain doctrine of the Church.(35) For the Church is, by the will of Christ,
the teacher of the truth. It is her duty to give utterance to, and
authoritatively to teach, that truth which is Christ Himself, and also to
declare and confirm by her authority those principles of the moral order which
have their origins in human nature itself. Furthermore, let Christians walk in
wisdom in the face of those outside, "in the Holy Spirit, in unaffected love, in
the word of truth" (2 Cor. 6:6-7), and let them be about their task of spreading
the light of life with all confidence(36) and apostolic courage, even to the
shedding of their blood.
The disciple is bound by a grave obligation toward Christ, his Master, ever
more fully to understand the truth received from Him, faithfully to proclaim it,
and vigorously to defend it, never-be it understood-having recourse to means
that are incompatible with the spirit of the Gospel. At the same time, the
charity of Christ urges him to love and have prudence and patience in his
dealings with those who are in error or in ignorance with regard to the
faith.(37) All is to be taken into account-the Christian duty to Christ, the
life-giving word which must be proclaimed, the rights of the human person, and
the measure of grace granted by God through Christ to men who are invited freely
to accept and profess the faith.
15. The fact is that men of the present day want to be able freely to profess
their religion in private and in public. Indeed, religious freedom has already
been declared to be a civil right in most constitutions, and it is solemnly
recognized in international documents.(38) The further fact is that forms of
government still exist under which, even though freedom of religious worship
receives constitutional recognition, the powers of government are engaged in the
effort to deter citizens from the profession of religion and to make life very
difficult and dangerous for religious communities.
This council greets with joy the first of these two facts as among the signs
of the times. With sorrow, however, it denounces the other fact, as only to be
deplored. The council exhorts Catholics, and it directs a plea to all men, most
carefully to consider how greatly necessary religious freedom is, especially in
the present condition of the human family. All nations are coming into even
closer unity. Men of different cultures and religions are being brought together
in closer relationships. There is a growing consciousness of the personal
responsibility that every man has. All this is evident. Consequently, in order
that relationships of peace and harmony be established and maintained within the
whole of mankind, it is necessary that religious freedom be everywhere provided
with an effective constitutional guarantee and that respect be shown for the
high duty and right of man freely to lead his religious life in society.
May the God and Father of all grant that the human family, through careful
observance of the principle of religious freedom in society, may be brought by
the grace of Christ and the power of the Holy Spirit to the sublime and unending
and "glorious freedom of the sons of God" (Rom. 8:21).
1. Cf. John XXIII, encycl. "Pacem
in Terris", April 11, 1963: AAS 55 (1963) p. 279; ibid., p. 265; Pius
XII, radio message, Dec. 24, 1944: AAS 37 (1945), p. 14.
2. Cf. John XXIII, encycL "Pacem
in Terris", April 11, 1963: AAS 55 (1963), pp. 260-261; Pius XII, radio
message, Dec. 24, 1942: AAS 35 (1943), p. 19; Pius XI, encycl. "Mit
Brennender Sorge", March 14, 1937: AAS 29 (1937), p. 160; Leo XIII,
Praestantissimum", June 20, 1888: Acts of Leo XIII 8 (1888), p. 237-238.
3. Cf. John XXIII, encycl. "Pacem
in Terris", April 11, 1963: AAS 55 (1963), p. 270; Paul VI, radio
message, Dec. 22, 1964: AAS 57 (1965), pp. 181-182.
4. Cf. John XXIII, encycl. "Mater
et Magistra", May 15, 1961: AAS 53 (1961), p. 417; idem, encycl. "Pacem
in Terris", April 11, 1963: AAS 55 (1963), p. 273.
5. Cf. John XXIII, encycl. "Pacem
in Terris", April 11, 1963: AAS 55 (1963), pp. 273-274; Pius XII, radio
message, June 1 1941: AAS 33 (1941), p. 200.
6. Cf. Leo XIII, encycl. "Immortale
Dei", Nov. 1, 1885: AAS 18 (1885) p. 161.
7. Cf. Lactantius "Divinarum Institutionum", Book V, 19: CSEL 19, pp.
463-464, 465: PL 6, 614 and 616 (ch. 20); St. Ambrose, "Epistola ad
Valentianum Imp.", Letter 21: PL 16, 1005; St. Augustine, "Contra
Litteras Petiliani", Book II, ch. 83: CSEL 52 p. 112: PL 43, 315; cf. C. 23,
q. 5, c. 33, (ed. Friedberg, col. 939); idem, Letter 23: PL 33, 98, idem, Letter
34: PL 33, 132; idem, Letter 35: PL 33, 135; St. Gregory the Great, "Epistola
ad Virgilium et Theodorum Episcopos Massiliae Galliarum, Register of Letters
I, 45: MGH Ep. 1, p. 72: PL 77, 510-511 (Book I, ep. 47); idem, "Epistola ad
Johannem Episcopum Constantinopolitanum", Register of Letters, III, 52: MGH
Letter 1, p. 210: PL 77, 649 (Book III, Letter 53); cf. D. 45, c. 1 (ed.
Friedberg, col 160); Council of Toledo IV, c. 57: Mansi 10, 633; cf. D. 45, c. 5
(ed. Friedberg, col. 161-162); Clement III: X., V, 6, 9: ed. Friedberg, col.
774; Innocent III, "Epistola ad Arelatensem Archiepiscopum", X., III, 42,
3: Friedberg, col. 646.
8. Cf. CIC, c.
1351; Pius XII, allocution to prelate auditors and other officials
and administrators of the tribune of the Holy Roman Rota, Oct. 6, 1946: AAS
38 (1946), p. 394; idem. Encycl
Mystici Corporis", June 29, 1943: AAS (1943) p. 243.
9. Cf. Eph. 1:5.
10. Cf. John 6:44.
11. Cf. John 13:13.
12. Cf. Matt. 11:29.
13. Cf. Matt. 11:28-30; John 6:67-68.
14. Cf. Matt. 9:28-29; Mark 9:23-24; 6:5-6; Paul VI, encycl. "Ecclesiam
Suam", Aug. 6, 1964: AAS 56 (1964), pp. 642-643.
15. Cf. Matt. 11:20-24; Rom. 12:19-20; 2 Thess. 1:8.
16. Cf. Matt. 13:30 and 40-42.
17. Cf. Matt. 4:8-10; John 6:15.
18. Cf. Is. 42:1-4.
19. Cf. John 18:37.
20. Cf. Matt. 26:51-53; John 18:36.
21. Cf. John 12:32.
22. Cf. 1 Cor. 2:3-5; 1 Thess. 2:3-5.
23. Cf. Rom. 14:1-23; 1 Cor. 8:9-13; 10:23-33.
24. Cf. Eph. 6:19-20.
25. Cf. Rom. 1:16.
26. Cf. 2 Cor. 10:4; 1 Thess. 5:8-9.
27. Cf. Eph. 6:11-17.
28. Cf. 2 Cor. 10:3-5.
29. Cf. 1 Pet. 2:13-17.
30. Cf. Acts 4: 19-20.
31. Cf. Leo XIII, letter "Officio
Sanctissimo", Dec. 22 1887: AAS 20 (1887), p. 269; idem, letter "Ex
Litteris", April 7 1887: AAS 19 (1886), p. 465.
32. Cf. Mark 16:15; Matt. 28:18-20, Pius XII, encycl. "Summi
Pontificatus", Oct. 20, 1939: AAS 31 (1939). pp. 445-446.
33. Cf. Pius XI, letter "Firmissiman Constantiam", March 28, 1937: AAS
29 (1937), p. 196.
34. Cf. Pius XII, allocution, "Ci Riesce", Dec. 6, 1953: AAS 45 (1953), p.
35. Cf. Pius XII, radio message, March 23, 1952: AAS 44 (1952) pp. 270-278.
36. Cf. Acts 4:29.
37. Cf. John XXIII, encycl. "Pacem
in Terris", April 11, 1963:AAS 55 (1963), pp. 299-300.
38. Cf. John XXIII, encycl. "Pacem
in Terris", April 11, 1963:AAS 55 (1963) pp. 295-296.