Èulogos IntraText is a
text converted into a "lexical hypertext", an interactive hypertext system
IntraText is available in several versions.
- text, which
you access from theindex or from the concordances. If the text contains footnotes,
these will appear at the foot of the text page and the general index will
also contain an index of the footnotes;
- word lists:
these are ordered alphabetically, by frequency of occurrence, in inverse order
and by length. The words in the lists are linked to the concordances;
lists comprising every occurrence of a particular word in the text. Each occurrence
is displayed in the centre of a short extract from the text;
word and occurrence statistics plus other features of the text.
IntraText is formatted in HTML pages which
can be read by most browsers (see notes on compatibility).
All pages in which information is displayed
are linked to each other. General links are to be found at the top of the
All pages are designed to be printed by the
printer used by your browser program.
Èulogos IntraText can be used both for a normal reading of
the text and for browsing the text as hypertext. The concordances, word lists
and statistics are extraordinarily powerful tools to enhance your reading
and deepen your understanding of the text.
You can move from reading the text to using
any of the other functions at any time because the words in the text are
linked to their respective concordances.
You can use any of the search and help options
of your browser.
The index page is the page from
which you can access all the data. It features a table of contents for the
text, a statistical summary and links to textual data.
The index is linked directly to the text: click
on one of the blue links and you will access the corresponding section of
If the text contains footnotes, you will see
an entry in the index called "footnote index". The footnote index comprises
a list of the footnotes contained in the text together with references to
the passages in the text to which the footnotes refer. Each entry in the
footnote index comprises the beginning of the text of the footnote and a
link to the footnote itself. The reference to the passage in the text is
a link to the precise point in the text where the footnote has been inserted.
The Text is divided
into pages linked to each other.
The words in the text are linked to their
concordances: just click on the word.
There are two ways you can move around
in the text:
To search for a word in the pageyou
- you can use the buttons "previous" and
"next" at the top and at the bottom of each page, or
- you can click on the word "Index" at
the top left of the page and choose the part of the text you wish to read.
To search for a word in the whole text:
- press CTRL+F. The search function of
the browser will be activated. Then type in the word you are looking for
and click on the "Find Next" button (This may be different in different browsers:
"Search", "Trova successivo", etc.)
If the text features footnotes, they
will appear at the bottom of the page below a horizontal line and in a different
font from the main text (this may vary according to your browser and operating
- go to the alphabetical word list
- click on the letter corresponding to
the initial letter of the word
- press CTRL+F
- type in the word you are looking for
- click on the "Find Next" button.
The number of each footnote appears in the
text as a superscript number, as in the example:
this word1has a footnote
which is numbered "1"
If you click on the superscript number, the
page will scroll down to the bottom of the page where the text of the footnote
Next to the text of the footnote, you will
find the footnote's number. If you click on this number, the page will scroll
back again to the place in the main text to which the footnote refers.
Words in the footnotes are treated just
like the words in the main text and are therefore included in the word lists,
in the statistics and in the concordances.
In some cases, words of particular footnotes
(for example notes not by the author) are not analysed, hence the words are
neither included in the statistics nor in the concordances. This allows a
more faithful picture of the language of the author without spurious interpolations.
by frequency, inverse alphabetical, by length
These lists are a fundamental
tool for studying, researching or skimming the text and offer a compact picture
of its vocabulary.
In each list, both the total number of words
('tokens') and the total number of occurrences are
The words in the lists are linked to their
respective concordances, except for function (or structure) words (prepositions,
pronouns, etc.) and hapax legomena. There are no concordances
for these words, so they do not appear as links.
To search within a list: CRTL+F (see above).
At the top of the first page of each list
you will find a detailed description and instructions.
Concordances can be
looked up for each word of the text (with the exception of function words
and hapax legomena).
The illustration below shows the structure
and features of the concordances.
Treatment of hapax legomena
Hapax legomena are words which occur only once
in a text. They are complied into one list in alphabetical order.
The list has the same format as a concordance.
In the text, hapax legomena do not have a link
to a concordance, since the concordance would merely be the same passage
as is currently being read.
To access the list of hapax legomena,
click on any word in a wordlist, where the word has a frequency of 1, or
- in a frequency list - click on 1.
Concordances of words occurring in footnotes
The concordances also include words contained
in footnotes. In this case the link to the relevant passage in the text will
display the number of the footnote in bold type.
To print concordances
The concordances have been designed to be printed
by using the printing options of your browser program.
There is no need to perform any additional operations.
- set the printer in landscape mode: this
will give a more easily interpretable result;
- the concordance lines are numbered and
these numbers are a useful unique reference point to a particular occurrence
for group work on a particular text.
page features an overview and graphs presenting textual data.
The statistics give a quantitative picture
of the text and of the results of its hypertextualization.
The x axis of each graph is linked to the corresponding
Tips for easier
reading of Èulogos IntraText
You can read an IntraText
using virtually any browser. For easier reading of IntraText:
- use a screen resolution of 800x600
or higher; (in Windows, this setting can be adjusted in the "Display" section
of the "Control Panel").
- set the browser so as not to underline
links. In IntraText all links are blue in colour, so they are easily
recognised without being underlined and since so many words are links, IntraText
is easier to read when the links are not underlined.
To set your browser not to underline links,
go to the Options or Preferences of your browser. (In Netscape:
Edit / Preferences / Appearance / Colors; in Internet Explorer: View / Options
- browser programs generally
use a specific default font to display the text. If concordances are not
justified, then select a different font such as (in Windows:) "Courier
Èulogos IntraText has been tested with the following programs:
Small display differences between browsers are
normal and will not compromise the legibility and ease with which you will
be able to browse IntraText.
- Arachne: all
- Delight: all
- Microsoft Internet Explorer: all
starting from version 2.0
- Lynx: all
- Mozilla: all
- Netscape Navigator: all starting
from version 2.0
- NCSA Mosaic: all starting from
version 3.0 (1996)
- Opera: all starting from version
- Palamito: all starting from version
Èulogos IntraText is created through HTML pages according
to ISO standards.
All pages and links are rendered compatible
with all operating systems and virtually all browser programs.
Specific techniques are employed so as to reduce
to the minimum the resources needed to run IntraText on your computer.
IntraText is produced by ECP (Èulogos
Concordance Program), a function of the system Èulogos SLI. Structural
tags are codified using ETML - Èulogos Text Mark-up Language.
The system has been tested on texts containing
over 30 million occurrences.
- concordances. Concordances
are lists of short extracts of text. Each extract displays some of the context
before and after a particular word.
For example, the concordance of the word
house is a list of short extracts containing all the occurrences
of the word house in the text.
Next to each extract you will find a reference
to the passage in the text in which it is to be found.
The reference is a hypertext link directly
to the text at the precise point where the extract is located.
- frequency. The frequency of
a word form ("token") is the total number of occurrences of that word form
in the text.
See also word.
- hapax legomena (or hapax).
In ancient Greek hapax legomena means "uttered only once". It is a
term used in linguistics to refer to words that are found only once in a
- IntraText. IntraText
is a registered trade mark of Èulogos SpA.
IntraText transforms a text (or a corpus)
into a lexical hypertext, an interactive hypertext system for reading
and research. It runs on the World Wide Web (Internet), CD, CDcard, DVD and
can be shared over a local network. It is compatible with all computers
and all operating systems using a Web browser.
IntraText is multilingual, can deal
with footnotes, produces statistics and graphs, can be printed
and can be exported into different environments.
- occurrence. See word.
- word. By word we mean
a sequence of alphabetical and/or numerical characters. For instance house,
Within a text, the same word may appear a
number of times. When a word appears in a text, then that word is said to
have an occurrence in that text.
If the word house appears 32 times
in a text, we say that that text has 32 occurrences of the word house.
The total of the occurrences of a word is called its "frequency": so in our
example, the word house has a frequency of 32.
For this reason, the size of a text is expressed
in terms of occurrences. For instance, the Bible in the Italian language
has about 815,000 occurrences, but only 33,000 words.
In IntraText, words are taken to be
what linguistics calls "tokens". For example,go,
goes, went andgone are treated as separate words.
All words are in treated as being lower case.
For this reason, if a text contains House,HOUSEand house,
they are all treated as occurrences of the word house.
- function (or structure) words.
Function words are those words in a language that have little lexical significance:
articles, prepositions, pronouns, etc.
Function words occur very frequently: in
an Italian text they make up well over 40% of the occurrences.
In IntraText, function words are included
in all word lists, but they are not concordanced, as they are usually considered
less significant. However, if explicitly requested, or if a text is multilingual,
function words are treated just like all other words.